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Article

Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration within a Five-Spot Well Pattern in the Morrow B Sandstone of the Farnsworth Hydrocarbon Field: Comparison of the TOUGHREACT, STOMP-EOR, and GEM Simulators

1
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA 99354, USA
3
Petroleum Recovery Research Center, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sohrab Zendehboudi
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5337; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175337
Received: 16 May 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 21 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting CO2 Sequestration with Enhanced Oil Recovery)
The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the fate and impact of CO2 injected into the Morrow B Sandstone in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU) through numerical non-isothermal reactive transport modeling, and (2) to compare the performance of three major reactive solute transport simulators, TOUGHREACT, STOMP-EOR, and GEM, under the same input conditions. The models were based on a quarter of a five-spot well pattern where CO2 was injected on a water-alternating-gas schedule for the first 25 years of the 1000 year simulation. The reservoir pore fluid consisted of water with or without petroleum. The results of the models have numerous broad similarities, such as the pattern of reservoir cooling caused by the injected fluids, a large initial pH drop followed by gradual pH neutralization, the long-term persistence of an immiscible CO2 gas phase, the continuous dissolution of calcite, very small decreases in porosity, and the increasing importance over time of carbonate mineral CO2 sequestration. The models differed in their predicted fluid pressure evolutions; amounts of mineral precipitation and dissolution; and distribution of CO2 among immiscible gas, petroleum, formation water, and carbonate minerals. The results of the study show the usefulness of numerical simulations in identifying broad patterns of behavior associated with CO2 injection, but also point to significant uncertainties in the numerical values of many model output parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive solute transport; CO2 sequestration; multi-phase fluid flow; Farnsworth Unit; STOMP; GEM; TOUGHREACT reactive solute transport; CO2 sequestration; multi-phase fluid flow; Farnsworth Unit; STOMP; GEM; TOUGHREACT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kutsienyo, E.J.; Appold, M.S.; White, M.D.; Ampomah, W. Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration within a Five-Spot Well Pattern in the Morrow B Sandstone of the Farnsworth Hydrocarbon Field: Comparison of the TOUGHREACT, STOMP-EOR, and GEM Simulators. Energies 2021, 14, 5337. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175337

AMA Style

Kutsienyo EJ, Appold MS, White MD, Ampomah W. Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration within a Five-Spot Well Pattern in the Morrow B Sandstone of the Farnsworth Hydrocarbon Field: Comparison of the TOUGHREACT, STOMP-EOR, and GEM Simulators. Energies. 2021; 14(17):5337. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kutsienyo, Eusebius J., Martin S. Appold, Mark D. White, and William Ampomah. 2021. "Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration within a Five-Spot Well Pattern in the Morrow B Sandstone of the Farnsworth Hydrocarbon Field: Comparison of the TOUGHREACT, STOMP-EOR, and GEM Simulators" Energies 14, no. 17: 5337. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175337

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