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Article

Legal and Political Barriers and Enablers to the Deployment of Marine Renewable Energy

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WavEC Offshore Renewables, Edifício Diogo Cão, Doca de Alcântara Norte,1350-352 Lisbon, Portugal
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France Energies Marines, 525 Avenue Alexis de Rochon, 29280 Plouzané, France
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Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3DW, UK
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Wave Energy Scotland, An Lochran, 10 Inverness Campus, Inverness IV2 5NA, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreea Zamfir
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4896; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164896
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 5 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Policies and Development of Renewable Energy)
Ocean energy is a promising source of clean renewable energy, with clear development targets set by the European Commission. However, the ocean energy sector faces non-technological challenges and opportunities that are frequently overlooked in deployment plans. The present study aimed to provide a critical evaluation of the ocean energy sector’s legal, institutional, and political frameworks with an identification and analysis of both barriers and enabling features for the deployment of ocean energy. In the first stage, a literature review on the current political and regulatory frameworks of a set of European countries was carried out, setting the basis for the main challenges and enabling factors faced by the sector. Secondly, a critical analysis of the main non-technological barriers and enablers was performed, which was supported by questionnaires sent to regulators, technology developers, and test-site managers. This questionnaire allowed us to collect and integrate the views, perceptions, and personal experiences of the main stakeholders of the ocean energy sector in the analysis. The most relevant insights were collected to guide future policy instruments, supports, and consenting measures in a more informed and effective manner and to help accelerate the development of the sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocean renewable energy; non-technological barriers; enabling factors; regulatory frameworks; policy instruments; questionnaire ocean renewable energy; non-technological barriers; enabling factors; regulatory frameworks; policy instruments; questionnaire
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MDPI and ACS Style

Apolonia, M.; Fofack-Garcia, R.; Noble, D.R.; Hodges, J.; Correia da Fonseca, F.X. Legal and Political Barriers and Enablers to the Deployment of Marine Renewable Energy. Energies 2021, 14, 4896. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164896

AMA Style

Apolonia M, Fofack-Garcia R, Noble DR, Hodges J, Correia da Fonseca FX. Legal and Political Barriers and Enablers to the Deployment of Marine Renewable Energy. Energies. 2021; 14(16):4896. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164896

Chicago/Turabian Style

Apolonia, Maria, Rhoda Fofack-Garcia, Donald R. Noble, Jonathan Hodges, and Francisco X. Correia da Fonseca. 2021. "Legal and Political Barriers and Enablers to the Deployment of Marine Renewable Energy" Energies 14, no. 16: 4896. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164896

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