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Article

Environmental Impact Evaluation of Current Municipal Solid Waste Treatments in India Using Life Cycle Assessment

1
Environmental Engineering and Management, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India
2
Sustainable Engineering Group, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Idiano D’Adamo and Sazal Kundu
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113133
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental System)
An environmental life cycle assessment was conducted to compare proposed municipal solid waste treatment systems with the existing system in Visakhapatnam, India. Five waste alternative treatment systems, including open dumping of municipal solid waste (S1), landfill without gas recovery [LFWGR] (S2), landfill with gas recovery (S3), anaerobic digestion + LFWGR (S4), and incineration + LFWGR (S5). EASETECHTM was considered for assessment using ReCiPE Midpoint (Heuristic) world environmental impact assessment method. Global warming potential (GWP), terrestrial acidification (TA), freshwater eutrophication (FEW), marine water eutrophication (ME), human toxicity (HTP), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), freshwater ecotoxicity (FWT), and marine ecotoxicity (MET) impacts were determined for each option. The existing MSW disposal practice in Visakhapatnam city (baseline scenario, S1) has the highest GWP (1107 kg CO2 eq.), which can potentially be reduced to 68.2%, 81.5%, 98.2%, and 94.5% by alternative waste management scenarios S2, S3, S4 and S5, respectively. Scenario S4, involving the use of anaerobic digestion of food waste and residues dumped in engineered landfill without energy recovery was found to be the option with the highest mitigation potential of most of the impacts, and it contributes to significant environmental benefits in terms of ecological footprints in a low-income country such as India. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to confirm the reasonable legitimacy of data used for the determination of the impacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: municipal solid waste; life cycle assessment; EASETECH; global warming potential; anaerobic digestion; landfill; incineration municipal solid waste; life cycle assessment; EASETECH; global warming potential; anaerobic digestion; landfill; incineration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheela, V.R.S.; John, M.; Biswas, W.K.; Dubey, B. Environmental Impact Evaluation of Current Municipal Solid Waste Treatments in India Using Life Cycle Assessment. Energies 2021, 14, 3133. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113133

AMA Style

Cheela VRS, John M, Biswas WK, Dubey B. Environmental Impact Evaluation of Current Municipal Solid Waste Treatments in India Using Life Cycle Assessment. Energies. 2021; 14(11):3133. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheela, Venkata R.S., Michele John, Wahidul K. Biswas, and Brajesh Dubey. 2021. "Environmental Impact Evaluation of Current Municipal Solid Waste Treatments in India Using Life Cycle Assessment" Energies 14, no. 11: 3133. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113133

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