Agriculture can provide biomass for bioproducts, biofuels and as energy feedstock with a low environmental impact, derived from carbohydrate, protein and oil annual crops, as well from lignocellulosic crops. This paper presents the thermophysical and chemical features of camelina and crambe straw depending on nitrogen fertilisation rate with a view to their further use in a circular bioeconomy. A two-factorial field experiment was set up in 2016, with camelina and crambe as the first factor and the N fertilizer rate (0, 60 and 120 kg·ha−1
·N) as the second factor. Ash content in crambe straw (6.97% d.m.) was significantly higher than in camelina straw (4.79% d.m.). The higher heating value was higher for the camelina (18.50 MJ·kg−1
·d.m.) than for the crambe straw (17.94 MJ·kg−1
·d.m.). Sulphur content was also significantly higher in camelina than in crambe straw. An increase in nitrogen content with increasing fertilisation rate was visible in the straw of both species (from 1.19 to 1.33% d.m., for no fertilisation and for a rate of 120 kg·ha−1
·N, respectively). Crambe straw contained more than five times more chlorine than camelina straw. In conclusion, despite certain adverse properties, camelina and crambe straw can be an alternative to other types of biomass, both for direct combustion, gasification and in the production of second-generation biofuels.
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