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Article

Environmental Sustainability of Bioenergy Strategies in Western Kenya to Address Household Air Pollution

1
Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
2
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden
4
Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden
5
Stockholm Environment Institute, Africa Centre, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi 30677, Kenya
6
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(3), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030719
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
Over 640 million people in Africa are expected to rely on solid-fuels for cooking by 2040. In Western Kenya, cooking inefficiently persists as a major cause of burden of disease due to household air pollution. Efficient biomass cooking is a local-based renewable energy solution to address this issue. The Life-Cycle Assessment tool Simapro 8.5 is applied for analyzing the environmental impact of four biomass cooking strategies for the Kisumu County, with analysis based on a previous energy modelling study, and literature and background data from the Ecoinvent and Agrifootprint databases applied to the region. A Business-As-Usual scenario (BAU) considers the trends in energy use until 2035. Transition scenarios to Improved Cookstoves (ICS), Pellet-fired Gasifier Stoves (PGS) and Biogas Stoves (BGS) consider the transition to wood-logs, biomass pellets and biogas, respectively. An Integrated (INT) scenario evaluates a mix of the ICS, PGS and BGS. In the BGS, the available biomass waste is sufficient to be upcycled and fulfill cooking demands by 2035. This scenario has the lowest impact on all impact categories analyzed followed by the PGS and INT. Further work should address a detailed socio-economic analysis of the analyzed scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: agroforestry; waste valorization; sustainable development goals; renewable energy; bioenergy transitions; circular bioeconomy; clean cooking; life-cycle assessment; energy policy agroforestry; waste valorization; sustainable development goals; renewable energy; bioenergy transitions; circular bioeconomy; clean cooking; life-cycle assessment; energy policy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carvalho, R.L.; Yadav, P.; García-López, N.; Lindgren, R.; Nyberg, G.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Krishna Kumar Upadhyayula, V.; Boman, C.; Athanassiadis, D. Environmental Sustainability of Bioenergy Strategies in Western Kenya to Address Household Air Pollution. Energies 2020, 13, 719. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030719

AMA Style

Carvalho RL, Yadav P, García-López N, Lindgren R, Nyberg G, Diaz-Chavez R, Krishna Kumar Upadhyayula V, Boman C, Athanassiadis D. Environmental Sustainability of Bioenergy Strategies in Western Kenya to Address Household Air Pollution. Energies. 2020; 13(3):719. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030719

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carvalho, Ricardo Luís, Pooja Yadav, Natxo García-López, Robert Lindgren, Gert Nyberg, Rocio Diaz-Chavez, Venkata Krishna Kumar Upadhyayula, Christoffer Boman, and Dimitris Athanassiadis. 2020. "Environmental Sustainability of Bioenergy Strategies in Western Kenya to Address Household Air Pollution" Energies 13, no. 3: 719. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030719

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