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Article

Network and Market-Aware Bidding to Maximize Local RES Usage and Minimize Cost in Energy Islands with Weak Grid Connections

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS), National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 15780 Athens, Greece
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AP Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4043; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164043
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 17 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration of Electric Vehicles and Battery Storage Systems)
The increasing renewable energy sources RES penetration in today’s energy islands and rural energy communities with weak grid connections is expected to incur severe distribution network stability problems (i.e., congestion, voltage issues). Tackling these problems is even more challenging since RES spillage minimization and energy cost minimization for the local energy community are set as major pre-requisites. In this paper, we consider a Microgrid Operator (MGO) that: (i) gradually decides the optimal mix of its RES and flexibility assets’ (FlexAsset) sizing, siting and operation, (ii) respects the physical distribution network constraints in high RES penetration contexts, and (iii) is able to bid strategically in the existing day-ahead energy market. We model this problem as a Stackelberg game, expressed as a Mathematical Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC), which is finally transformed into a tractable Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP). The performance evaluation results show that the MGO can lower its costs when bidding strategically, while the coordinated planning and scheduling of its FlexAssets result in higher RES utilization, as well as distribution network aware and cost-effective RES and FlexAsset operation. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy islands; local energy communities; flexibility; optimal bidding RES siting and sizing; price maker energy islands; local energy communities; flexibility; optimal bidding RES siting and sizing; price maker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smpoukis, K.; Steriotis, K.; Efthymiopoulos, N.; Tsaousoglou, G.; Makris, P.; Varvarigos, E. Network and Market-Aware Bidding to Maximize Local RES Usage and Minimize Cost in Energy Islands with Weak Grid Connections. Energies 2020, 13, 4043. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164043

AMA Style

Smpoukis K, Steriotis K, Efthymiopoulos N, Tsaousoglou G, Makris P, Varvarigos E. Network and Market-Aware Bidding to Maximize Local RES Usage and Minimize Cost in Energy Islands with Weak Grid Connections. Energies. 2020; 13(16):4043. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smpoukis, Konstantinos, Konstantinos Steriotis, Nikolaos Efthymiopoulos, Georgios Tsaousoglou, Prodromos Makris, and Emmanouel Varvarigos. 2020. "Network and Market-Aware Bidding to Maximize Local RES Usage and Minimize Cost in Energy Islands with Weak Grid Connections" Energies 13, no. 16: 4043. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164043

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