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Energies 2019, 12(6), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12060994

A Model for Multi-Energy Demand Response with Its Application in Optimal TOU Price

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

With the generalization of the integrated energy system (IES) on the demand side, multi-energy users may participate in a demand response (DR) program based on their flexible consumption of energy. However, since users could choose using alternative energy or transfer energy consumption to other time periods, obtaining response characteristics of this type of DR usually appears more complicated than traditional single-energy DR. To obtain the response characteristic, a response model for multi-energy DR, which reflects the relations between electricity (gas) response and time-of-use (TOU) electric prices, is proposed. The model is characterized by several coefficients which are associated with electric and heat efficiency. The model is obtained through the derivation process of optimizing user’s energy-using problem. Then, as a typical application of the response model, the TOU electric pricing for multi-energy users is able to be formulated by an interior point algorithm after giving the Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the optimal problem. Typical results of the optimal TOU pricing are further illustrated through the formulation on a PJM five-bus test system. It demonstrates that optimal TOU pricing can be effectively pre-calculated by the utility company using the proposed response model. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-energy demand response; integrated energy system; energy connection; response model; time-of-use multi-energy demand response; integrated energy system; energy connection; response model; time-of-use
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Zhao, N.; Wang, B.; Wang, M. A Model for Multi-Energy Demand Response with Its Application in Optimal TOU Price. Energies 2019, 12, 994.

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