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Energies 2019, 12(6), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061025

Optimal Placement of Remote-Controlled Switches in Distribution Networks in the Presence of Distributed Generators

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Southern Illinois University, 1230 Lincoln Dr., Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
2
Power Systems Development, Open Systems International, 4101 Arrowhead Drive, Medina, MN 55340, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
PDF [1206 KB, uploaded 15 March 2019]

Abstract

A two-level optimization method is presented to find the optimal number and location of conventional protective devices to be upgraded to remote-controlled switches (RCSs) for an existing distribution network (DN). The effect of distributed generation (DG) on this problem is considered. In the first level, a nonlinear binary program is proposed to maximize the restored customers subject to technical and topological constraints. All feasible interchanges between protective devices and ties involved in the restoration, when a fault occurs at all possible locations are found considering switching dependencies. In the second level, a nonlinear cost function, combining the expected cost of interruptions (ECOST) and the switch cost, is minimized with respect to the location of RCSs. The expected cost function is computed based on the optimum restoration policies obtained from the first level. The optimum placement of RCSs using the proposed algorithm is tested on a 4-feeder 1069-node test system and compared to the solution obtained with a genetic algorithm (GA) on the same system.
Keywords: distributed generation (DG); distribution network (DN); islanding; nonlinear programming; power distribution reliability distributed generation (DG); distribution network (DN); islanding; nonlinear programming; power distribution reliability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Isapour Chehardeh, M.; Hatziadoniu, C.J. Optimal Placement of Remote-Controlled Switches in Distribution Networks in the Presence of Distributed Generators. Energies 2019, 12, 1025.

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