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Energies 2019, 12(6), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061024

Aggregating Large-Scale Generalized Energy Storages to Participate in the Energy and Regulation Market

Key Laboratory of Control of Power Transmission and Conversion of Ministry of Education, Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
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Abstract

This paper proposes a concept of generalized energy storage (GES) to facilitate the integration of large-scale heterogeneous flexible resources with electric/thermal energy storage capacity, in order to participate in multiple markets. First, a general state variable, referred to as the degree of satisfaction (DoS), is defined, and dynamic models with a unified form are derived for different types of GESs. Then, a real-time market-based coordination framework is proposed to facilitate control, as well as to ensure user privacy and device security. Demand curves of different GESs are then developed, based on DoS, to express their demand urgencies as well as flexibilities. Furthermore, a low-dimensional aggregate dynamic model of a GES cluster is derived, thanks to the DoS-equality control feature provided by the design of the demand curve. Finally, an optimization model for large-scale GESs to participate in both the energy market and regulation market is established, based on the aggregate model. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimization algorithm could effectively reduce the total cost of an aggregator. Additionally, the proposed coordination method has a high tracking accuracy and could well satisfy a diversified power demand. View Full-Text
Keywords: generalized energy storage (GES); coordination control; aggregate dynamic model; market-based control; multiple markets generalized energy storage (GES); coordination control; aggregate dynamic model; market-based control; multiple markets
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Yao, Y.; Zhang, P.; Chen, S. Aggregating Large-Scale Generalized Energy Storages to Participate in the Energy and Regulation Market. Energies 2019, 12, 1024.

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