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Energies 2019, 12(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030541

Thermal Non-Equilibrium Heat Transfer Modeling of Hybrid Nanofluids in a Structure Composed of the Layers of Solid and Porous Media and Free Nanofluids

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia
2
RAK Research and Innovation Center, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, P.O. Box 10021, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer Enhancement)
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Abstract

The free convection heat transfer of hybrid nanofluids in a cavity space composed of a clear flow, porous medium and a solid part is addressed. The cavity is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top. The side walls are well insulated. The upper part of the cavity is a clear space with no porous or solid materials and is filled with hybrid nanofluid. The bottom part is divided into two parts of a porous space saturated with the hybrid nanofluid and a solid thermal conductive block. There are conjugate heat transfer mechanisms between the solid block and the porous medium filled with the hybrid nanofluid as well as the hybrid nanofluid in the clear space. For the porous medium model, the local thermal non-equilibrium effects are considered. The hybrid nanofluids contain copper (20 nm) and alumina nanoparticles (40 nm) hybrid nanoparticles. The governing equations for the flow and heat transfer of the hybrid nanofluid in the clear space and the porous medium are introduced. Considering the conjugate heat transfer between the solid block and the hybrid nanofluid fluid in the pores and the porous matrix, appropriate boundary conditions for heat channeling are utilized. The governing equations are transformed into non-dimensional form to generalize the model. The finite element method is employed to solve the equations. The grid check and validation procedure are performed. Subsequently streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are studied as important aspects of flow and heat transfer in the cavity. The increase in the portion of the clear flow part in the cavity enhances heat transfer due to better hybrid nanofluid circulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural convection heat transfer; hybrid nanofluid; porous medium; conjugate heat transfer natural convection heat transfer; hybrid nanofluid; porous medium; conjugate heat transfer
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Chamkha, A.J.; Sazegar, S.; Jamesahar, E.; Ghalambaz, M. Thermal Non-Equilibrium Heat Transfer Modeling of Hybrid Nanofluids in a Structure Composed of the Layers of Solid and Porous Media and Free Nanofluids. Energies 2019, 12, 541.

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