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Open AccessArticle

Model Predictive Control-Based Coordinated Control Algorithm with a Hybrid Energy Storage System to Smooth Wind Power Fluctuations

1
Guangzhou Power Supply Bureau Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510620, China
2
College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 210027, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4591; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234591
Received: 22 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
Stochastically fluctuating wind power has an escalating impact on the stability of power grid operations. To smooth out short- and long-term fluctuations, this paper presents a coordinated control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC) to manage a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of ultra-capacitor (UC) and lithium-ion battery (LB) banks. In the HESS-computing period, the algorithm minimizes HESS operating costs in the subsequent prediction horizon by optimizing the time constant of a flexible first-delay filter (FDF) to obtain the UC power output. In the LB-computing period, the algorithm keeps the optimal time constant of the FDF from the previous period to directly obtain the power output of the UC bank to minimize the power output of the LB bank in the next prediction horizon. A relaxation technique is deployed when the problem is unsolvable. Thus, the fluctuation mitigation requirements are fulfilled with a large probability even in extreme conditions. A state-of-charge (SOC) feedback control strategy is proposed to regulate the SOC of the HESS within its proper range. Case studies and quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the proposed MPC-based algorithm uses a lower power rating and storage capacity than other conventional algorithms to satisfy one-minute and 30-min fluctuation mitigation requirements (FMR). View Full-Text
Keywords: index terms—wind power fluctuations; hybrid energy storage system (HESS); model predictive control (MPC); flexible first-delay-filter (FDF); fluctuation mitigation requirements (FMR) index terms—wind power fluctuations; hybrid energy storage system (HESS); model predictive control (MPC); flexible first-delay-filter (FDF); fluctuation mitigation requirements (FMR)
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Hong, H.; Jiang, Q. Model Predictive Control-Based Coordinated Control Algorithm with a Hybrid Energy Storage System to Smooth Wind Power Fluctuations. Energies 2019, 12, 4591.

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