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Modelling Uncertainty in t-RANS Simulations of Thermally Stratified Forest Canopy Flows for Wind Energy Studies

1
MaREI, University College Cork, P43 C573 Cork, Ireland
2
DUWIND, Delft University of Technology, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands
3
Energy, DNV-GL, Bristol BS2 0PS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071703
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

The flow over densely forested terrain under neutral and non-neutral conditions is considered using commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Results are validated against data from a site in Northeastern France. It is shown that the effects of both neutral and stable atmospheric stratifications can be modelled numerically using state of the art methodologies whilst unstable stratifications will require further consideration. The sensitivity of the numerical model to parameters such as canopy height and canopy density is assessed and it is shown that atmospheric stability is the prevailing source of modelling uncertainty for the study. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind energy; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); non-neutral; forest; canopy; site assessment; Vaudeville-le-Haut wind energy; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); non-neutral; forest; canopy; site assessment; Vaudeville-le-Haut
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Desmond, C.J.; Watson, S.; Montavon, C.; Murphy, J. Modelling Uncertainty in t-RANS Simulations of Thermally Stratified Forest Canopy Flows for Wind Energy Studies. Energies 2018, 11, 1703.

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