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Current Oncology is published by MDPI from Volume 28 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Multimed Inc..

Curr. Oncol., Volume 19, Issue 5 (October 2012) – 20 articles

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Letter
Politics, Health, and Mesothelioma: When It Comes to Cancer, None Is One Too Many
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 374-375; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.854 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 207
Abstract
All public strategies and policies are ultimately public health policies and strategies. [...] Full article
Meeting Report
Selected Abstracts Aubmitted to the 3rd International Cancer Fatigue Symposium
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 371-373; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1236 - 01 Oct 2012
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Quality of life (QOL) in survivors of premenopausal breast cancer (BC) is influenced by prolonged hormone therapy, secondary amenorrhea, and other factors. A proportion of premenopausal bc patients develop fatigue during follow-up. [...] Full article
Meeting Report
Treatment Recommendations for the Use of Bone-Targeted Agents in 2011—Report from the 6th Annual Bone and the Oncologist New Updates Meeting
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 364-370; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1008 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 164
Abstract
The 6th annual Bone and the Oncologist New Updates conference was held in Ottawa, Ontario, April 14–15, 2011. This meeting traditionally focuses on innovative research into the mechanisms and consequences of treatment-induced and metastatic bone disease. This year, the multidisciplinary audience was polled [...] Read more.
The 6th annual Bone and the Oncologist New Updates conference was held in Ottawa, Ontario, April 14–15, 2011. This meeting traditionally focuses on innovative research into the mechanisms and consequences of treatment-induced and metastatic bone disease. This year, the multidisciplinary audience was polled to produce “treatment recommendations for the use of bone-targeted agents.” In addition, the meeting report itself outlines some of the key topics presented on adjuvant bisphosphonate use and the role of bone-targeted agents in the settings of meta-static and cancer-therapy-induced bone loss. Full article
Case Report
Adenocarcinoma Not Otherwise Specified on Dorsum of Tongue: Case Report and Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 358-363; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1091 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 214
Abstract
Primary adenocarcinoma of the oropharynx most often arises from the minor salivary glands, and primary squamous cell carcinoma is more commonly seen arising from the tongue. Few cases of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified of the tongue have been reported in the literature, and [...] Read more.
Primary adenocarcinoma of the oropharynx most often arises from the minor salivary glands, and primary squamous cell carcinoma is more commonly seen arising from the tongue. Few cases of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified of the tongue have been reported in the literature, and none found on the dorsum of the tongue. Successful treatment strategies have therefore not been defined. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one third of the tongue adjacent to the circumvallate papillae in a woman presenting with globus sensation and mild dysphagia. Treatment consisted of transoral laser excision and postoperative external-beam radiotherapy, resulting in disease-free survival at her 5-year follow-up. The goals of this report are to present a case of adenocarcinoma arising from the minor salivary gland located on the dorsum of the tongue, to discuss previous reports of similar cases, and to suggest that surgery with or without radiotherapy be used as the mainstay of treatment. Full article
Case Report
Prognostic Effect of Early Treatment of Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis in a Patient with Small-Cell Lung Cancer
by and
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 353-357; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1007 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (pns) is an uncommon manifestation of cancer and may present before any symptoms of malignant disease. This syndrome occurs in fewer than 1 of every 10,000 patients diagnosed with a malignancy. Anti-neural antibodies have been associated with pns, [...] Read more.
Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (pns) is an uncommon manifestation of cancer and may present before any symptoms of malignant disease. This syndrome occurs in fewer than 1 of every 10,000 patients diagnosed with a malignancy. Anti-neural antibodies have been associated with pns, suggesting that this condition may reflect immune mechanisms. Depending on the region of the nervous system that has been affected, pns can have a number of manifestations. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (ple) stems from involvement of the limbic system and may present with seizures and changes in mood, memory, and personality. The present report describes the case of a 55-year-old man presenting with ple in the setting of small-cell lung cancer, with subsequent improvement of his neurologic symptoms. The value of rapid diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of this syndrome are discussed. Full article
Review
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 343-352; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1016 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 184 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (mbsr) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (mbct) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: The medline, Cochrane Library, embase, cambase, [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (mbsr) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (mbct) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: The medline, Cochrane Library, embase, cambase, and PsycInfo databases were screened through November 2011. The search strategy combined keywords for mbsr and mbct with keywords for breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials (rcts) comparing mbsr or mbct with control conditions in patients with breast cancer were included. Two authors independently used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess risk of bias in the selected studies. Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted by two authors independently. Primary outcome measures were health-related quality of life and psychological health. If at least two studies assessing an outcome were available, standardized mean differences (smds) and 95% confidence intervals (cis) were calculated for that outcome. As a measure of heterogeneity, I2 was calculated. Results: Three rcts with a total of 327 subjects were included. One rct compared mbsr with usual care, one rct compared mbsr with free-choice stress management, and a three-arm rct compared mbsr with usual care and with nutrition education. Compared with usual care, mbsr was superior in decreasing depression (smd: −0.37; 95% ci: −0.65 to −0.08; p = 0.01; I2 = 0%) and anxiety (smd: −0.51; 95% ci: −0.80 to −0.21; p = 0.0009; I2 = 0%), but not in increasing spirituality (smd: 0.27; 95% ci: −0.37 to 0.91; p = 0.41; I2 = 79%). Conclusions: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of mbct in improving psychological health in breast cancer patients, but more rcts are needed to underpin those results. Full article
Article
Continuity Clinics in Oncology Training Programs in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 329-342; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1046 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 276
Abstract
Purpose: Continuity clinics (CCS) give trainees an opportunity for longitudinal follow-up of a patient cohort. Trainees can function in a semi-autonomous manner and prepare for independent practice. Data about such clinics in Canada are limited. Our objective was to assess [...] Read more.
Purpose: Continuity clinics (CCS) give trainees an opportunity for longitudinal follow-up of a patient cohort. Trainees can function in a semi-autonomous manner and prepare for independent practice. Data about such clinics in Canada are limited. Our objective was to assess the utility of CCS in Canadian oncology training programs. Methods: Surveys were developed by the authors for (1) medical and radiation oncology program directors (PDS) and trainees, to assess the utility of CCS in Canadian oncology training programs. (2) oncology patients, to assess their attitudes toward CCS. The PDS were contacted by e-mail, using the Web site of the Canadian Resident Matching Service; the trainees were contacted by e-mail through the PDS and their administrative assistants. Surveys were distributed electronically using SurveyMonkey. Patients were approached by staff oncologists during follow-up visits at The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre. Results: Completed surveys were received from 33% of trainees and 63% of PDS contacted; patient surveys were completed by 95 patients. Participation in a cc was reported by 47% of responding PDS and 37% of responding trainees. Among respondents, 80% rated the CCS as “important” or “very important” to training. The biggest challenge identified by trainees and PDS was lack of clinic space. Most PDS (57%) and trainees (59%) felt that the staff oncologist should review the patient only if the trainee has concerns, but only 37% of patients shared that view (p = 0.0002). However, many patients expressed the desire to participate in trainee education. Conclusions: Continuity clinics are considered beneficial by PDS and trainees. Patients desire more trainee supervision than the trainees themselves and the PDS do, a factor that should be considered when implementing a CC. Full article
Article
Evaluating the Efficacy of Current Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Postmenopausal Women with Early-Stage, Estrogen or Progesterone Receptor–Positive, One-To-Three Positive Axillary Lymph Node, Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 319-328; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1038 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 256
Abstract
Purpose: We evaluated the benefit of the current clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy for postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive (er/pr+), one-to-three positive axillary lymph node (1–3 ln+), breast cancer (esbc). Methods: [...] Read more.
Purpose: We evaluated the benefit of the current clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy for postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive (er/pr+), one-to-three positive axillary lymph node (1–3 ln+), breast cancer (esbc). Methods: Using the Manitoba Cancer Registry, we identified all postmenopausal women diagnosed with er/pr+ 1–3 ln+ esbc during the periods 1995–1997, 2000–2002, and 2003–2005 (n = 156, 161, and 171 respectively). Treatment data were obtained from the Manitoba Cancer Registry and by linkage with Manitoba administrative databases. Seven-year survival data were available for the 1995–1997 and 2000–2002 populations. Using Cox regression, we assessed the independent effect of the clinical practice of adjuvant chemotherapy on disease-free (dfs) and overall survival (os). Results: Clinical breast cancer treatments did not differ significantly between the 2000–2002 and 2003–2005 populations. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 103 patients in the 2000–2002 population (64%) and in 44 patients in the 1995–1997 population [28.2%; mean difference: 36%; 95% confidence interval (ci): 31% to 40%; p < 0.0001]. Compared with 1995–1997, 2000–2002 was not significantly associated with an incremental dfs benefit for patients over a period of 7 years (2000–2002 vs. 1995–1997; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% ci: 0.64 to 1.4). Conclusions: The treatment standard of adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to endocrine therapy may not be effective for all women with er/pr+ 1–3 ln+ esbc. There could be a subgroup of those women who do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy as expected and who are therefore being overtreated. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our results. Full article
Article
Chemotherapy Uptake and Wait Times in Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 308-318; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1020 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 223
Abstract
Background: Treatment uptake and elapsed times along the care path have emerged as potential quality indicators for cancer care delivery. This retrospective study examined changes in adjuvant chemotherapy uptake and elapsed times along the care path for patients in 2005 and in [...] Read more.
Background: Treatment uptake and elapsed times along the care path have emerged as potential quality indicators for cancer care delivery. This retrospective study examined changes in adjuvant chemotherapy uptake and elapsed times along the care path for patients in 2005 and in 2007 who had early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) and who underwent curative-intent surgery in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: All patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for stages i–iii nsclc in the two years of interest were included. Logistic regression and general linear models were used to examine factors associated with chemotherapy uptake patterns and, at various resolutions (low, intermediate, high), elapsed times between all care events in the care path. Results: In the 223 patients who underwent curative-intent surgery (108 in 2005, 115 in 2007), several factors were associated with uptake patterns and elapsed times. Cohort year (2007 vs. 2005) was not associated with referral to medical oncology [odds ratio (or): 1.05; 95% confidence interval (ci): 0.51 to 2.15; p = 0.905], but it was associated with less treatment after referral (or: 0.34; 95% ci: 0.11 to 1.00; p = 0.057) and less overall uptake (or: 0.35; 95% ci: 0.13 to 0.95; p = 0.040). Patients were referred sooner to medical oncology in 2007 than in 2005 (21 days vs. 35 days, p = 0.008), but experienced longer waits between consultation and chemotherapy delivery (18 days vs. 7 days, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Significant differences were observed in care patterns over time. Frequent monitoring of care patterns at high resolution may optimize insights into emerging trends within cancer care systems. Full article
Editorial
Malnutrition Screening Programs in Adult Cancer Patients: Clinical Practice is Hungry for Evidence
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 305-307; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1006 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 192
Abstract
Most oncology dietitians in Canada agree that screening cancer patients for malnutrition is an important area for research, guideline development, and clinical practice[...].
Full article
Editorial
Time to Put an End to the “One Size Fits All” Approach to Bisphosphonate Use in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer?
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 303-304; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1009 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 199
Abstract
Bisphosphonates emerged as an effective treatment for metastatic bone disease in the mid-1990s, and in a relatively short time, they have become an integral component in the palliative care of a range of common malignancies that spread to bone[...]. Full article
Article
The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: Historical Perspective
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 272-276; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1075 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 241
Abstract
The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes (1) support [...] Read more.
The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes (1) support of research and training; (2) provision of relevant and accurate information on the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer; (3) promotion of public awareness about cancer and reduction of the stigma associated with it. In seeking to achieve its goal of cancer control in Africa, AORTIC strives to unite the continent and to make a positive impact throughout the region by collaboration with health ministries and global cancer organizations. The organization’s key objectives are to further research relating to cancers prevalent in Africa, to support training programs in oncology for health care workers, to deal with the challenges of creating cancer control and prevention programs, and to raise public awareness of cancer in Africa. It also plans to organize symposia, workshops, meetings, and conferences that support its mission. Founded in September 1982, AORTIC was active only between 1983 (when its inaugural conference was held in the City of Lome, Togo, West Africa) and the late 1980s. The organization subsequently became inactive and moribund. In 2000, a group of expatriate African physicians and scientists joined in an effort with their non-African friends and colleagues to reactivate the dormant organization. Since its reactivation, AORTIC has succeeded in putting cancer on the public health agenda in many African countries by highlighting Africa’s urgent need for cancer control and by holding meetings every two years in various African cities. National and international cancer control organizations worldwide have recognized the challenges facing Africa and have joined in AORTIC’s mission. Full article
Editorial
A First Look at Participation Rates in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 269-271; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1188 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 239
Abstract
In 2011, the Pan-Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Initiative (PCCSI), supported by the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, released Cervical Cancer Screening in Canada: Monitoring Program Performance 2006–2008 and for the first time presented information on 12 national quality indicators relating to provincial [...] Read more.
In 2011, the Pan-Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Initiative (PCCSI), supported by the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, released Cervical Cancer Screening in Canada: Monitoring Program Performance 2006–2008 and for the first time presented information on 12 national quality indicators relating to provincial and territorial cervical cancer screening programs. [...] Full article
Review
Bone-Targeted Agents and Skeletal-Related Events in Breast Cancer Patients with Bone Metastases: The State of the Art
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 259-268; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1011 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 468
Abstract
Most women with advanced breast cancer will develop bone metastases, which are associated with the development of skeletal-related events (sres) such as pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression. This article reviews the evolving definition and incidence of sres, the pathophysiology of [...] Read more.
Most women with advanced breast cancer will develop bone metastases, which are associated with the development of skeletal-related events (sres) such as pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression. This article reviews the evolving definition and incidence of sres, the pathophysiology of bone metastases, and the key evidence for the safety and efficacy of the currently available systemic treatment options for preventing and delaying sres in the setting of breast cancer with bone metastases. The bisphosphonates are structural analogues of endogenous pyrophosphate; three of them (clodronate, pamidronate, and zoledronate) are currently approved for use in Canada in the setting of breast cancer with bone metastases. Denosumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that binds to human rankl (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand), thereby preventing osteoclast formation, function, and survival, and reducing cancer-induced destruction of bone. Denosumab has recently been approved in Canada for reducing the risk of sres from the bone metastases associated with a variety of malignancies, including breast cancer. How to predict the patients that will benefit most from prophylactic treatment, the agents to select and the timing of switches between agents, the dosing schedules and durations of treatment to choose, the potential utility of the agents in the adjuvant setting, and the utility of additional endpoints such as markers of bone resorption are among the outstanding questions with respect to the optimal use of antiresorptive agents for patients with breast cancer and bone metastases. Full article
Article
Clinical Features and Course of Brain Metastases in Colorectal Cancer: An Experience from a Single Institution
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 254-258; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1048 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 487
Abstract
Objectives: Brain metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are quite rare. Here, we review the characteristics, presentation, and clinical course of such patients at our institution. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with brain metastases from CRC treated [...] Read more.
Objectives: Brain metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are quite rare. Here, we review the characteristics, presentation, and clinical course of such patients at our institution. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with brain metastases from CRC treated during 2000–2009. Associations between patient, tumour characteristics, treatment modality, and survival were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: We identified 48 patients (25 men, 23 women) who developed brain metastases from CRC. The median age at diagnosis of the brain metastases was 63 years (range: 37–84 years). In 23 of the patients (48%), the primary tumour occurred in the rectum. At diagnosis of brain metastases, 43 patients (90%) also had other systemic metastases (mainly pulmonary and hepatic). The median interval between diagnosis of the primary tumour and of the brain metastases was 24 months. Median survival after a diagnosis of brain metastasis from CRC was 4 months (range: 1–13 months). We observed substantially better survival (13 months, p < 0.001) in patients treated with surgery followed by whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) than in those treated with radiotherapy or surgery alone. Sex, age, location and number of brain metastases, and timing of diagnosis did not affect survival. Conclusions: Brain metastases from CRC develop late in the course of the disease, given that most patients already have other secondary lesions. Prognosis in these patients is poor, with those receiving treatment with surgery and WBRT having the best overall survival. Early detection and treatment of brain metastases with new systemic therapies may improve outcomes. Full article
Article
Tumour Size Predicts Long-Term Survival among Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 249-253; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1043 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 515
Abstract
Background: The benefit of early detection of breast cancer is assumed to be achieved primarily by identifying disease before it has spread beyond the breast. In support of early detection, the survival experience of women with breast cancer decreases as the mean [...] Read more.
Background: The benefit of early detection of breast cancer is assumed to be achieved primarily by identifying disease before it has spread beyond the breast. In support of early detection, the survival experience of women with breast cancer decreases as the mean size of the cancer increases. It is not clear if women with regional spread (node-positive breast cancer) benefit from early detection to the same extent that women with node-negative breast cancer do. Methods: A review was conducted of the survival experience of 1894 patients with invasive breast cancers 5.0 cm or less in size. Cases were divided into node-positive and node-negative, and tumours were categorized by size (0.1–1.0 cm, 1.1–2.0 cm, and 2.1–5.0 cm). After a mean follow-up of 9.9 years, 368 cancer-specific deaths had occurred in the cohort. The effect of tumour size on 15-year survival for subgroups of women with node-positive and node-negative breast cancer was estimated. Results: Tumour size was a strong predictor of 15-year survival in both the node-positive and node-negative cancer subgroups. A decline of 1.0 cm in size was associated with a reduction in 15-year mortality of 10.3% in the node-positive group and of 2.5% in the node-negative group. A decline of approximately 1.5 cm was associated with a reduction in mortality of 23.0% in the node-positive group and of 10.8% in the node-negative group. Conclusions: The impact of decreasing tumour size on 15-year survival is much greater for women with node-positive than for women with node-negative breast cancers. Contrary to expectation, the benefit of screening is likely to be greater for women with relatively advanced breast cancer than for women with earlystage disease. Full article
Commentary
Are Bilateral Cancers Hereditary? Part II
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 246-247; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1218 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 189
Abstract
There is no disputing that cancer susceptibility genes, when mutated, may give rise to bilateral cancers in those who inherit a mutation. But is it equally true that all bilateral cancers have a hereditary origin—that is, are they all caused by an inherited [...] Read more.
There is no disputing that cancer susceptibility genes, when mutated, may give rise to bilateral cancers in those who inherit a mutation. But is it equally true that all bilateral cancers have a hereditary origin—that is, are they all caused by an inherited germline mutation? [...] Full article
Editorial
The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 245; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1102 - 01 Oct 2012
Viewed by 157
Abstract
As the nations of the African continent continue to improve their standard of living (including better housing, improved nutrition, access to education, and so on), public health is emerging as a significant necessity [...] Full article
Editorial
The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 244; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1080 - 01 Oct 2012
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Elsewhere in this issue, Mohammed and colleagues describe the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) [...] Full article
Editorial
Size Surprise? Tumour Size, Nodal Status, and Outcome after Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2012, 19(5), 241-243; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.1185 - 01 Oct 2012
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 225
Abstract
When it comes to tumour size, axillary lymph node status, and outcome after invasive ductal breast carcinoma, several facts have been established. [...] Full article
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