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Current Oncology is published by MDPI from Volume 28 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Multimed Inc..

Curr. Oncol., Volume 17, Issue 3 (June 2010) – 13 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Re-Irradiation of Metastatic Disease in the Neck from Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 83-85; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.479 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 49
Abstract
Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum, an autosomal recessive disease that occurs with a frequency of 1:250,000, is caused by a genetic defect in nucleotide excision repair enzymes. Mutation of these enzymes leads to the development of multiple basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Objectives: We [...] Read more.
Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum, an autosomal recessive disease that occurs with a frequency of 1:250,000, is caused by a genetic defect in nucleotide excision repair enzymes. Mutation of these enzymes leads to the development of multiple basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Objectives: We present a case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a patient with cervical and intraparotid metastatic disease from recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the face and scalp, treated with neck dissection and re-irradiation. With the illustrative case report, we include a literature review of diagnosis, prognostic factors, and treatment, with emphasis on surgical and radiation treatment of cervical metastatic disease from recurrent skin carcinomas. Case Presentation: A xeroderma pigmentosum patient presented to our clinic with a 2-cm right submental and 1-cm right infra-auricular mass after resection of multiple squamous cell carcinomas of the scalp and face, and external-beam radiation therapy to the right face and neck. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the submental mass revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was brought to the operating room for a right modified radical neck dissection and excision of the right submental and intraparotid mass. Surgical pathology revealed 3 level ia and supraclavicular lymph nodes that were positive for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Re-irradiation to the entire right hemi-neck and left submandibular nodal region was performed using opposed oblique portals for the upper neck and a low anterior en face hemi-neck portal. The left parotid region was also included in the re-irradiation volume. Treatment was completed without delayed complications or recurrences to date. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum who subsequently developed metastatic disease from recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the rarity of xeroderma pigmentosum, this case report is also the first to describe re-irradiation to treat cervical and intraparotid metastatic disease in a xeroderma pigmentosum patient. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Peritoneal Seeding and Subsequent Progression of Mantle Cell Lymphoma after Splenectomy for Debulking
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 78-82; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.466 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 49
Abstract
Background: Peritoneal seeding after abdominal surgery is a well known route of metastasis in intra-abdominal solid tumours. Direct mechanical contamination, local peritoneal trauma and subsequent inflammation, postoperative immunosuppression, and laparoscopic surgery are the proposed predisposing factors for this type of metastasis. These factors [...] Read more.
Background: Peritoneal seeding after abdominal surgery is a well known route of metastasis in intra-abdominal solid tumours. Direct mechanical contamination, local peritoneal trauma and subsequent inflammation, postoperative immunosuppression, and laparoscopic surgery are the proposed predisposing factors for this type of metastasis. These factors probably result in enhanced adhesion or growth of tumour cells. However, this route of metastasis has not yet been reported for lymphomas. Here, we report the first case of peritoneal seeding of lymphoma cells after an abdominal surgery. Case Description: A 47-year-old man with mantle cell lymphoma had ascites because of infiltration of the liver. He underwent debulking splenectomy. The postoperative ascites cytology and control abdominal computed tomography imaging both confirmed peritoneal involvement and lymphoma progression. Demonstration of negative peritoneal involvement before surgery and close timing of peritoneal involvement after splenectomy suggested to us that the debulking surgery was the main cause of peritoneal seeding of lymphoma cells in our case. Conclusions: Factors similar to those in solid tumour seeding may also be valid for lymphomas. Peritoneal seeding and consequent disease progression may be a potential complication of abdominal surgery in lymphoma with extensive intra-abdominal involvement. Full article
Open AccessMeeting Report
Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference: Setting the Limits of Resectable Disease
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 70-77; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.610 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 49
Abstract
The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Montreal, Quebec, October 22–24, 2009. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with colorectal cancer participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. [...] Read more.
The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Montreal, Quebec, October 22–24, 2009. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with colorectal cancer participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management colorectal cancer, such as the management of hepatic and pulmonary metastases, the role of monoclonal antibodies to the epidermal growth factor receptor, and the benefits and safety of chemotherapy in elderly patients. The management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours and gastric cancer are also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Follow-Up for Women after Treatment for Cervical Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 65-69; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.514 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 247
Abstract
Question: What is the most appropriate follow-up strategy for patients with cervical cancer who are clinically disease-free after receiving primary treatment? Perspectives: For women with cervical cancer who have been treated with curative intent, follow-up includes identification of complications related to treatment and [...] Read more.
Question: What is the most appropriate follow-up strategy for patients with cervical cancer who are clinically disease-free after receiving primary treatment? Perspectives: For women with cervical cancer who have been treated with curative intent, follow-up includes identification of complications related to treatment and intervention in the event of recurrent disease. Most women who recur with cervical cancer are not curable; however, early identification of recurrence can alter disease management or treatment-planning options, and for those with a central pelvic recurrence and no evidence of distant disease, there is a potential for cure with additional therapy. Follow-up protocols in this population are variable, using a number of tests at a variety of intervals with questionable outcomes. Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care is sponsored by Cancer Care Ontario and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Outcomes: Outcomes of interest included recurrence, survival, and quality of life. Methodology: The Gynecology Cancer Disease Site Group (DSG) conducted a systematic review of the literature and a narrative review of emerging clinical issues to inform the most appropriate follow-up strategy for patients with cervical cancer. The evidence was insufficient to specify a clinically useful recommended follow-up schedule, and therefore, the expert consensus opinion of the Gynecology Cancer DSG was used to develop recommendations on patient surveillance. The resulting recommendations were reviewed and approved by the Gynecology Cancer dsg and by the Program in Evidence-Based Care Report Approval Panel. An external review by Ontario practitioners completed the final phase of the review process. Feedback from all parties was incorporated to create the final practice guideline. Results: The systematic review of the literature identified seventeen retrospective studies. The Gynecology Cancer dsg used a consensus process to develop recommendations based on the available evidence from the systematic review, the narrative review, and the collective clinical experience and judgment of the DSG members. Practice Guideline: The recommendations in this practice guideline are based on the expert consensus opinion of the Gynecology Cancer dsg, informed by evidence from retrospective studies. These are some general features of an appropriate follow-up strategy: 1. At a minimum, follow-up visits with a complete physical examination, including a pelvic–rectal exam and a patient history, should be conducted by a physician experienced in the surveillance of cancer patients. 2. There is little evidence to suggest that vaginal vault cytology adds significantly to the clinical exam in detecting early disease recurrence. 3. Routine use of various other radiologic or biologic follow-up investigations in asymptomatic patients is not advocated, because the role of those investigations has yet to be evaluated in a definitive manner. 4. A reasonable follow-up schedule involves follow-up visits every 3–4 months in the first 2 years and every 6–12 months in years 3–5. Patients should return to annual population-based general physical and pelvic examinations after 5 years of recurrence-free follow-up. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Consensus Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Well-Differentiated Gastroenterohepatic Neuroendocrine Tumours: A Revised Statement from a Canadian National Expert Group
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 49-64; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.484 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 132
Abstract
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETS—previously called “carcinoid tumours”) are relatively rare tumours originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system; they are found most often in the bronchial or gastrointestinal systems. In Canada, gastroenterohepatic NETS represent less than 0.25% of oncology cases. Because of the relative [...] Read more.
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETS—previously called “carcinoid tumours”) are relatively rare tumours originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system; they are found most often in the bronchial or gastrointestinal systems. In Canada, gastroenterohepatic NETS represent less than 0.25% of oncology cases. Because of the relative rarity of these tumours, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches vary and are often based on individual physician experience. A number of European and North American groups have developed consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated gastroenterohepatic NETS, and in 2006, Canadian consensus guidelines were published by a Canadian expert group. The updated and expanded current Canadian guidelines are based on a consensus meeting held in Paris, France, in 2008 and are based on the most current literature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Therapy in Stages III and IV Head and Neck Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 37-48; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.520 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 57
Abstract
Question: What are the benefits associated with the use of anti–epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC)? Anti-EGFR therapies of interest included cetuximab, gefitinib, lapatinib, zalutumumab, erlotinib, and panitumumab. Perspectives: Head-and-neck cancer includes malignant [...] Read more.
Question: What are the benefits associated with the use of anti–epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC)? Anti-EGFR therapies of interest included cetuximab, gefitinib, lapatinib, zalutumumab, erlotinib, and panitumumab. Perspectives: Head-and-neck cancer includes malignant tumours arising from a variety of sites in the upper aerodigestive tract. The most common histologic type is squamous cell carcinoma, and most common sites are the oral cavity, the oropharynx, the hypopharynx, and the larynx. Worldwide, HNSCC is the sixth most common neoplasm, and despite advances in therapy, long-term survival in HNSCC patients is poor. Primary surgery followed by chemoradiation, or primary chemoradiation, are the standard treatment options for patients with locally advanced (stages III–IVB) HNSCC; however, meta-analytic data indicate that the benefit of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy disappears in patients over the age of 70 years. Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care is sponsored by Cancer Care Ontario and the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody approved for use in combination with radiation in the treatment of patients with untreated locally advanced HNSCC and as monotherapy for patients with recurrent or metastatic (stage IVC) HNSCC who have progressed on platinum-based therapy. Given the interest in anti-EGFR agents in advanced HNSCC, the Head and Neck Cancer Disease Site Group (DSG) of Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care (PEBC) chose to systematically review the literature pertaining to this topic so as to develop evidence-based recommendations for treatment. Outcomes: Outcomes of interest included overall and progression-free survival, quality of life, tumour response rate and duration, and the toxicity associated with the use of anti-EGFR therapies. Methodology: The medline, embase, and Cochrane Library databases, the American Society of Clinical Oncology online conference proceedings, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse were systematically searched to locate primary articles and practice guidelines. The reference lists from relevant review articles were searched for additional trials. All evidence was reviewed, and that evidence informed the development of the clinical practice guideline. The resulting recommendations were approved by the Report Approval Panel of the pebc, and by the Head and Neck Cancer dsg. An external review by Ontario practitioners completed the final phase of the review process. Feedback from all parties was incorporated to create the final practice guideline. Results: The electronic search identified seventy-four references that were reviewed for inclusion. Only four phase iii trials met the inclusion criteria for the present guideline. No practice guidelines, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses were found during the course of the literature search. The randomized controlled trials (rcts) involved three distinct patient populations: those with locally advanced hnscc being treated for cure, those with incurable advanced recurrent or metastatic hnscc being treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, and those with incurable advanced recurrent or metastatic hnscc who had disease progression despite, or who were unsuitable for, first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Practice Guideline: These recommendations apply to adult patients with locally advanced (nonmetastatic stages iii–ivb) or recurrent or metastatic (stage ivc) hnscc. 1. Platinum-based chemoradiation remains the current standard of care for treatment of locally advanced hnscc. 2. In patients with locally advanced hnscc who are medically unsuitable for concurrent platinumbased chemotherapy or who are over the age of 70 years (because concurrent chemotherapy does not appear to improve overall survival in this patient population), the addition of cetuximab to radical radiotherapy should be considered to improve overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to local recurrence. 3. Cetuximab in combination with platinum-based combination chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy alone in patients with recurrent or metastatic hnscc, and is recommended to improve overall survival, progression-free survival, and response rate. 4. The role of anti-egfr therapies in the treatment of locally advanced hnscc is currently under study in large randomized trials, and patients with hnscc should continue to be offered clinical trials of novel agents aimed at improving outcomes. Qualifying Statements: Chemoradiation is the current standard of care for patients with locally advanced hnscc, and to date, there is no evidence that compares cetuximab plus radiotherapy with chemoradiation, or that examines whether the addition of cetuximab to chemoradiation is of benefit in these patients. However, five ongoing trials are investigating the effect of the addition of egfr inhibitors concurrently with, before, or after chemoradiotherapy; those trials should provide direction about the best integration of cetuximab into standard treatment. In patients with recurrent or metastatic hnscc who experience progressive disease despite, or who are unsuitable for, first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, gefitinib at doses of 250 mg or 500 mg daily, compared with weekly methotrexate, did not increase median overall survival [hazard ratio (hr): 1.22; 96% confidence interval (ci): 0.95 to 1.57; p = 0.12 (for 250 mg daily vs. weekly methotrexate); hr: 1.12; 95% ci: 0.87 to 1.43; p = 0.39 (for 500 mg daily vs. weekly methotrexate)] or objective response rate (2.7% for 250 mg and 7.6% for 500 mg daily vs. 3.9% for weekly methotrexate, p > 0.05). As compared with methotrexate, gefitinib was associated with an increased incidence of tumour hemorrhage (8.9% for 250 mg and 11.4% for 500 mg daily vs. 1.9% for weekly methotrexate). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multimodality Breast Cancer Screening in Women with a Familial or Genetic Predisposition
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 28-36; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.494 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 47
Abstract
Background: Women with a predisposition for breast cancer require a tailored screening program for early cancer detection. We evaluated the performance of mammography (MG), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in these women. Patients and Methods: In asymptomatic women either confirmed [...] Read more.
Background: Women with a predisposition for breast cancer require a tailored screening program for early cancer detection. We evaluated the performance of mammography (MG), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in these women. Patients and Methods: In asymptomatic women either confirmed as BRCA1/2 carriers, or having a greater than 30% probability of being so as estimated by BRCAPRO [Berry D, Parmigiani G. Duke SPORE (Specialized Program of Research Excellence) in Breast Cancer. 1999], we conducted a prospective comparative trial consisting of annual MRI and MG, and biannual US and clinical breast examination. All evaluations were done within 30 days of one another. For each screening round, imaging tests were independently interpreted by three radiologists. Results: The study enrolled 184 women, and 387 screening rounds were performed, detecting 12 cancers (9 infiltrating, 3 in situ), for an overall cancer yield of 6.5%. At diagnosis, 7 infiltrating cancers were smaller than 2 cm (T1); only 1 woman presented with axillary nodal metastases. All tumours were negative for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Of the 12 cancers, MRI detected 10, and MG, 7; US did not identify any additional cancers. The overall recall rate after MRI was 21.8%, as compared with 11.4% for US and 16.1% for MG. Recall rates declined with successive screening rounds. In total, 45 biopsies were performed: 21 as a result of an US abnormality; 17, because of an MRI lesion; and 7, because of a MG anomaly. Interpretation: In high-risk women, MRI offers the best sensitivity for breast cancer screening. The combination of yearly MRI and MG reached a negative predictive value of 100%. The recall rate is greatest with MRI, but declines for all modalities with successive screening rounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How Effective Is Video Consultation in Clinical Oncology? A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 17-27; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.513 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 87
Abstract
Background: Video-consultation (VC) is a specialized type of telemedicine that uses technology to provide real-time visual and audio patient assessment at a distance. In the present review, we set out to evaluate whether VC is feasible for the assessment, monitoring, and management of [...] Read more.
Background: Video-consultation (VC) is a specialized type of telemedicine that uses technology to provide real-time visual and audio patient assessment at a distance. In the present review, we set out to evaluate whether VC is feasible for the assessment, monitoring, and management of oncology patients. Methods: A search strategy designed to capture studies that addressed the use of telemedicine to deliver cancer care identified relevant articles in the medline (1966 to September 2008) and PubMed (to 2008) databases. Articles were included if they described studies incorporating: (1) video-conferencing between patient and provider for assessment or monitoring, (2) physicians or nurses as the care providers, (3) cancer patients, (4) consultation in real-time, and (5) reporting of 1 or more outcomes. Results: Of the more than three hundred articles retrieved, nineteen articles describing 15 unique patient populations involving 709 patients were inclusded in the analysis. No randomized trials were located. Eight studies included a control group; seven involved a case series. The most commonly reported outcomes were patient satisfaction (ten studies), cost to perform consultation (six studies), patient preference for VC compared with in-person consultation (five studies), provider satisfaction (four studies), and provider convenience (four studies). Of these outcomes, satisfaction on the part of patients and physicians has been positive overall, total costs were comparable to or less than those for in-person consultations, and patients valued having vc as an option for consultation. Outcomes evaluating the effect on clinical care were infrequently reported. Conclusions: While there is evidence to suggest that vc is both feasible and effective for use in the clinical care of oncology patients, studies are generally small and methodologically weak, with limited power of inference. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Potential Use of the Anti-Inflammatory Drug, Sulfasalazine, for Targeted Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 9-16; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.485 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 75
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive, drug-resistant disease; its first-line chemotherapeutic, gemcitabine, is only marginally effective. Intracellular depletion of glutathione, a major free-radical scavenger, has been associated with growth arrest and reduced drug resistance (chemosensitization) of cancer cells. In search of a new therapeutic [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive, drug-resistant disease; its first-line chemotherapeutic, gemcitabine, is only marginally effective. Intracellular depletion of glutathione, a major free-radical scavenger, has been associated with growth arrest and reduced drug resistance (chemosensitization) of cancer cells. In search of a new therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer, we sought to determine whether specific inhibition of the plasma membrane xc− cystine transporter could lead to reduced uptake of cysteine, a key precursor of glutathione, and subsequent glutathione depletion. Sulfasalazine (approximately 0.2 mmol/L), an anti-inflammatory drug with potent xc−-inhibitory properties, markedly reduced L-[14C]-cystine uptake, glutathione levels, and growth and viability of human MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. These effects were shown to result primarily from inhibition of cystine uptake mediated by the xc− cystine transporter and not from inhibition of nuclear factor κB activation, another property of sulfasalazine. The efficacy of gemcitabine could be markedly enhanced by combination therapy with sulfasalazine both in vitro and in immunodeficient mice carrying xenografts of the same cell lines. No major side effects were observed in vivo. The results of the present study suggest that the xc – transporter plays a major role in pancreatic cancer by sustaining or enhancing glutathione biosynthesis, and as such, represents a potential therapeutic target. Sulfasalazine, a relatively nontoxic drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, may, in combination with gemcitabine, lead to more effective therapy of refractory pancreatic cancer. Full article
Open AccessLetter
Challenging Obesity Relating to Barrett Esophagitis
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 8; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.601 - 01 Jun 2010
Viewed by 45
Abstract
In North America, the imbibing of soda [...] Full article
Open AccessLetter
Adjuvant Interferon Alfa for Melanoma
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 6-7; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.511 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 52
Abstract
The author poses the question “Why did these study results not lead to a global consensus about interferon treatment as standard of care?” [...] Full article
Open AccessLetter
Balancing Potential Quality-of-Life Benefits Against the Risk of Lethal Late Recurrence with Bladder-Preserving Surgery
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 4; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.544 - 01 Jun 2010
Viewed by 47
Abstract
The authors make a clear case for the role of bladder preservation strategies in selected patients [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Medulloblastoma in Infants: The Critical Issues of the Dilemma
Curr. Oncol. 2010, 17(3), 2-3; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.v17i3.504 - 01 Jun 2010
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 53
Abstract
Brain tumours have now become the leading cause of cancer death in children under the age of 18 [...] Full article
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