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Nutraceuticals, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 14 articles

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11 pages, 1664 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profile and Quantification of Terpene Trilactones and Flavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L. Buds Depending on Physiological Stages
by Dominique Laurain-Mattar, Sahar Saliba, Joseph Mattar, Afra Khiralla, Rosella Spina and Dominique Decolin
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 185-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010014 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
The phytochemical profiles of extracts from closed, semi-opened and opened leaf buds and the summer leaves of Ginkgo biloba were studied. The extraction and purification of bilobalide and ginkgolides, using andrographolide as an internal standard, were optimised. The terpene trilactone concentrations increased with [...] Read more.
The phytochemical profiles of extracts from closed, semi-opened and opened leaf buds and the summer leaves of Ginkgo biloba were studied. The extraction and purification of bilobalide and ginkgolides, using andrographolide as an internal standard, were optimised. The terpene trilactone concentrations increased with bud development, from 1.07 mg/g dry wt in closed buds to a maximum of 3.75 mg/g dry wt in summer leaves. The major terpene trilactone was bilobalide at all developmental stages. The concentration of flavonol aglycones in hydrolysed extracts was also analysed. The flavonol glycoside concentration increased from the closed bud stage (0.21 ± 0.01% dry wt) to the summer leaf stage (1.15 ± 0.01% dry wt). A linear correlation was observed between the terpene trilactone and flavonoid content during gingko leaf development. Full article
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10 pages, 605 KiB  
Brief Report
The Response of a Leaky Gut Cell Culture Model (Caco-2/THP-1 Co-Culture) to Administration of Alternative Protein Sources
by Massimo Marzorati, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Lynn Verstrepen, Jelle De Medts and Ricardo D. Ekmay
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 175-184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010013 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Several alternative proteins have emerged that may improve the environmental footprint of our food system. Evaluations into the impact of these protein sources on gastrointestinal health is limited. A study was performed to determine whether aqueous extracts from dietary protein sources, both traditional [...] Read more.
Several alternative proteins have emerged that may improve the environmental footprint of our food system. Evaluations into the impact of these protein sources on gastrointestinal health is limited. A study was performed to determine whether aqueous extracts from dietary protein sources, both traditional and alternative, had a differential impact on a leaky gut cell culture model. Aqueous extracts of soybean meal, fish meal, Cyberlindnera jadinii, Saccharomyces sp., Bio-Mos, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Methylobacterium extorquens, Escherichia coli, and Hermetia illucens were administered onto a Caco-2/THP-1 co-culture and the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, CXCL10, and MCP-1 concentrations, and NF-κB activity were determined. Principal components analysis and K means clustering were performed. Three clusters were identified: one for soybean meal, one for bacterial meals, and one for the remaining sources. The bacterial meal cluster exhibited pro-inflammatory properties, i.e., correlated with TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB. The soybean meal cluster exhibited both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, whereas the third cluster containing the remaining proteins exhibited anti-inflammatory properties (correlated with TEER and IL-10). These results suggest that aqueous extracts from yeast proteins contribute more positively, and bacterial proteins contribute the least positively, towards intestinal health in a leaky gut model. Full article
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10 pages, 1422 KiB  
Article
TRPA1 Agonists and Bladder Nociception in Female Rats Suggest Potential for Nutraceutical Benefit from Cinnamon
by Timothy J. Ness, Amer Babi, Madeline E. Ness and Cary DeWitte
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 165-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010012 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
TRPA1-related drugs alter sensation, particularly in conditions of inflammation. To further characterize the role of these drugs in bladder sensation, the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CMA) and oral true cinnamon spice were examined in preclinical models of bladder pain. Female adult rats, with and [...] Read more.
TRPA1-related drugs alter sensation, particularly in conditions of inflammation. To further characterize the role of these drugs in bladder sensation, the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CMA) and oral true cinnamon spice were examined in preclinical models of bladder pain. Female adult rats, with and without acute zymosan-induced cystitis, were anesthetized and visceromotor (VMR) and cystometric responses to urinary bladder distension (UBD) were determined following either the intravesical administration of CMA/vehicle solutions or the oral administration of true cinnamon/vehicle. ELISA measures of bladder TRPA1 content were also determined. Acute cystitis resulted in increases in bladder TRPA1 content and produced an increased vigor of the VMRs to UBD and a lowering of micturition volume thresholds for activation of a micturition response. Intravesical CMA produced a robust inhibition of VMRs to UBD in rats with cystitis but not in those without. Micturition volume thresholds were lowered by CMA in rats without cystitis but had no additional effect in rats with cystitis. Oral cinnamon also produced a robust inhibition of VMRs to UBD in rats with cystitis and a mild augmentation of VMRs to UBD in rats without cystitis. A potentially analgesic effect of the spice, true cinnamon, in the treatment of the pain of acute cystitis was suggested by these preclinical studies. Human studies are indicated. Full article
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12 pages, 2898 KiB  
Article
Citrus aurantium ‘Crispifolia’ Essential Oil: A Promise for Nutraceutical Applications
by Michela Di Napoli, Giusy Castagliuolo, Natale Badalamenti, Viviana Maresca, Adriana Basile, Maurizio Bruno, Mario Varcamonti and Anna Zanfardino
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 153-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010011 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Food waste is one of the main topics of various scientific studies of the last decade. In this regard, this work analyzed an essential oil (EO) extracted from the flavedo of Citrus aurantium ‘Crispifolia’ fruit. The analysis, performed by GC-MS, showed a chemically [...] Read more.
Food waste is one of the main topics of various scientific studies of the last decade. In this regard, this work analyzed an essential oil (EO) extracted from the flavedo of Citrus aurantium ‘Crispifolia’ fruit. The analysis, performed by GC-MS, showed a chemically variegated chromatogram characterized by the presence of limonene (33.35%), but also by oxygenated monoterpenes such as β-linalool (7.69%), α-terpineol (7.06%), and geranyl acetate (10.12%). EO from the external part of the C. aurantium peel had several properties, including excellent antimicrobial and good antibiofilm activities. It also showed antioxidant activity in vitro and decreased the amount of cellular ROS, thus stimulating the catalytic activity of crucial enzymes involved in mitigating oxidative stress. Full article
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34 pages, 1476 KiB  
Review
Potential of Microalgae as Functional Foods Applied to Mitochondria Protection and Healthy Aging Promotion
by Lorenzo Zanella and Fabio Vianello
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 119-152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010010 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4668
Abstract
The rapid aging of the Western countries’ populations makes increasingly necessary the promotion of healthy lifestyles in order to prevent/delay the onset of age-related diseases. The use of functional foods can significantly help to achieve this aim, thanks to the contribution of biologically [...] Read more.
The rapid aging of the Western countries’ populations makes increasingly necessary the promotion of healthy lifestyles in order to prevent/delay the onset of age-related diseases. The use of functional foods can significantly help to achieve this aim, thanks to the contribution of biologically active compounds suitable to protect cellular and metabolic homeostasis from damage caused by stress factors. Indeed, the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), favored by incorrect eating and behavioral habits, are considered causal elements of oxidative stress, which in turn favors tissue and organism aging. Microalgae represent a convenient and suitable functional food because of their extraordinary ability to concentrate various active compounds, comprising omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and others. Within cells, mitochondria are the cellular organelles most affected by the accumulation of molecular damage produced by oxidative stress. Since, in addition to producing the chemical energy for cellular metabolism, mitochondria control numerous cell cycle regulation processes, including intrinsic apoptosis, responses to inflammatory signals and other biochemical pathways, their dysfunction is considered decisive for many pathologies. Among these, some degenerative diseases of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidney function and even cancer are found. From this viewpoint, bioactive compounds of microalgae, in addition to possessing high antioxidant properties, can enhance mitochondrial functionality by modulating the expression of numerous protective factors and enzymes, which in turn regulate some essential biochemical pathways for the preservation of the functional integrity of the cell. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role played by microalgal compounds in the regulation of the mitochondrial life cycle, expression of protective and reparative enzymes, regulation of intrinsic apoptosis and modulation of some key biochemical pathways. Special attention was paid to the composition of some cultivable microalgae strains selected for their high content of active compounds suitable to protect and improve mitochondrial functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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10 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Effects, Protection of Gut Barrier Integrity and Stimulation of Phagocytosis of Postbiotic Combination ABB C1
by Maria Tintoré, Jordi Cuñé, Vaclav Vetvicka and Carlos de Lecea
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 109-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010009 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2217
Abstract
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects, the protection of gut barrier integrity, and the stimulation of phagocytosis in peripheral cells of a nutritional supplement based on a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique 1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of postbiotic Saccharomyces [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects, the protection of gut barrier integrity, and the stimulation of phagocytosis in peripheral cells of a nutritional supplement based on a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique 1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of postbiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc. The anti-inflammatory effect in caco-2 cells in the presence and absence of a pro-inflammatory challenge (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]/interferon gamma [IFN-ɣ]) showed statistically significant reductions in IFN-ɣ induced protein-10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels vs. controls (p < 0.001). Disruption of the gut integrity in the presence or absence of Escherichia coli (ETEC H10407) showed transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values higher in the ABB C1® group after 6 h of testing. Spontaneous build-up of the gut epithelium monolayer over 22 days was also greater in the ABB C1® condition vs. a negative control. ABB C1® showed a significantly higher capacity to stimulate phagocytosis as compared with controls of algae β-1,3-glucan and yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucan (p < 0.001). This study supports the mechanism of action by which ABB C1® may improve the immune response and be useful to prevent infection and allergy in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Nutraceuticals in Actual Therapeutic Strategies)
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2 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Nutraceuticals in 2022
by Nutraceuticals Editorial Office
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 107-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010008 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
16 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
European Black Elderberry Fruit Extract Inhibits Replication of SARS-CoV-2 In Vitro
by Christian Setz, Maria Fröba, Maximilian Große, Pia Rauch, Janina Auth, Alexander Steinkasserer, Stephan Plattner and Ulrich Schubert
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 91-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010007 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8271
Abstract
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is still affecting the lives of people round the globe and remains a major public health threat. The emergence of new variants more efficiently transmitted, more virulent and more capable of escaping naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity creates a long-term [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is still affecting the lives of people round the globe and remains a major public health threat. The emergence of new variants more efficiently transmitted, more virulent and more capable of escaping naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity creates a long-term negative outlook for the management of the pandemic. The development of effective and viable prevention and treatment options to reduce viral transmission is of the utmost importance. The fruits of the European black elderberry and extracts thereof have been traditionally used to treat viral infections such as coughs, cold and flu. Specifically, its efficacy against the Influenza A virus has been shown in vitro as well as in human clinical trials. In the current project, we investigated the antiviral activity of a black elderberry extract, mainly containing anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern and explored the possible mode of action by performing time of addition experiments. The results revealed that the extract displayed a strong anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against the Wuhan type as well as the variants of concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron with a comparable antiviral activity. Based on cytotoxicity data, a 2-log theoretical therapeutic window was established. The data accumulated so far suggest that the viral replication cycle is inhibited at later stages, inasmuch as the replication process was affected after virus entry. Therefore, it would be legitimate to assume that black elderberry extract might have the potential to be an effective treatment option for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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16 pages, 2365 KiB  
Article
Amber Extract Suppressed Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation via the Regulation of Allergic Mediators—An In Vitro Study
by Redoyan Refli, Neng Tanty Sofyana, Haruna Haeiwa, Reiko Takeda, Kazuma Okazaki, Marie Sekita and Kazuichi Sakamoto
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 75-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010006 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
The various clinical approaches for treating allergy-related diseases have shown modest progress in low side effects and improved clinical outcomes. Therefore, finding alternative anti-allergic agents is crucial. The present study explored the anti-allergic effects of amber extract (fossilized tree resin) in RBL-2H3 mast [...] Read more.
The various clinical approaches for treating allergy-related diseases have shown modest progress in low side effects and improved clinical outcomes. Therefore, finding alternative anti-allergic agents is crucial. The present study explored the anti-allergic effects of amber extract (fossilized tree resin) in RBL-2H3 mast cells stimulated with different allergens. In order to support the information on the inflammatory effect of the amber extract, NO production analysis on RAW 264.7 cells was conducted. β-Hexosaminidase release, an indicator of the efficacy of the amber extract in preventing mast cell activation and degranulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the effect of the amber extract on key cytokines production on RBL-2H3 cells, was evaluated. The results demonstrated that amber extract at concentrations up to 50 μg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 and RBL-2H3 cells. Amber extract inhibited NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment with amber extract significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase, especially at 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, amber extract suppressed the significantly increased ROS levels induced by allergen stimulation and allergy-associated cytokines. The results also suggested that amber extract exerts anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, resulting in decreased cytokines production. Thus, the amber extract is a promising anti-allergic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Nutraceuticals in Actual Therapeutic Strategies)
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17 pages, 3085 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Lignans from Flaxseed: Biological Properties and Patented Recovery Technologies
by Paola Sangiorgio, Simona Errico, Alessandra Verardi, Stefania Moliterni, Gabriella Tamasi, Claudio Rossi and Roberto Balducchi
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 58-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010005 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5107
Abstract
Flaxseed lignans frequently feature in the literature. However, much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms underlying their functional and therapeutic properties. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify systems for lignan production and detoxification that are sustainable, cost-effective, easy to use, and scale [...] Read more.
Flaxseed lignans frequently feature in the literature. However, much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms underlying their functional and therapeutic properties. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify systems for lignan production and detoxification that are sustainable, cost-effective, easy to use, and scale up. These systems can address the needs of the nutraceutical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical sectors and lead to competitive commercial products. This review analyzes the biological effects of lignans as anticancer, antioxidants, and modulators of estrogen activity. It also focuses on the most recent articles on lignan extraction methods that are sustainable and suitable as products for human consumption. Furthermore, the most up-to-date and relevant patents for lignan recovery are examined. The search and selection methodology for articles and patents was conducted using the most popular bibliographic and patent databases (e.g., Scopus, Pubmed, Espacenet). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first overview that details the patented technologies developed in the flaxseed lignans area in the last 10 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Nutraceuticals in Actual Therapeutic Strategies)
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19 pages, 4183 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Effects of Blueberries through Inhibition on Cholinesterase, Tyrosinase, Cyclooxygenase-2, and Amyloidogenesis
by Pari Samani, Sophia Costa and Shuowei Cai
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 39-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010004 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4541
Abstract
Blueberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds and have shown improvement in cognitive function in several clinical trials. The molecular basis of the neuronal protection of blueberries, however, is not fully understood. The objective of this research is to understand the biochemistry basis of [...] Read more.
Blueberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds and have shown improvement in cognitive function in several clinical trials. The molecular basis of the neuronal protection of blueberries, however, is not fully understood. The objective of this research is to understand the biochemistry basis of neuronal protection effects of blueberries through their impacts on several enzymes and pathways involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. We examined the inhibition effects of blueberries on the enzymatic activity of cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase, AChE; and butyrylcholinesterase, BuChE), tyrosinase, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects of blueberries on the biosynthesis of acetylcholinesterase in a cellular model were also studied. Further, the effect of blueberries on amyloid fibril formation was evaluated. Our results showed that blueberries directly inhibit the enzymatic activity of AChE, BuChE, tyrosinase, and COX-2, with the IC50 at 48 mg/mL, 9 mg/mL, 403 mg/mL, and 12 mg/mL of fresh berry equivalent, respectively. Further, blueberries delay the amyloid fibril formation by 24 h at 39 mg fresh berry/mL. It also reduces the synthesis of acetylcholinesterase synthesis at 19 mg fresh berry/mL in a cellular model. Those results suggested that the neuroprotection effects of blueberries may involve different pathways, including enhancing cholinergic signaling through their effect on cholinesterase, reducing neuroinflammation through inhibition of COX-2, and reducing amyloid formation. Collectively, blueberries may play a vital role in neuronal protection beyond their antioxidant activity and our results provide more molecular mechanisms for their neuroprotective effects, and support blueberries being nutraceutical to improve cognitive function. Full article
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13 pages, 2646 KiB  
Article
Modulating the Gut Microbiota with Alginate Oligosaccharides In Vitro
by Grégoire Bouillon, Olav Gåserød, Łukasz Krych, Josué L. Castro-Mejía, Witold Kot, Markku T. Saarinen, Arthur C. Ouwehand, Dennis S. Nielsen and Fergal P. Rattray
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 26-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010003 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates from brown kelp. As such, they are dietary fibers and may have prebiotic potential. Therefore, we investigated the capacity of gut bacteria to utilize AOS with single-strain cultures and as a complex bacterial community. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, [...] Read more.
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates from brown kelp. As such, they are dietary fibers and may have prebiotic potential. Therefore, we investigated the capacity of gut bacteria to utilize AOS with single-strain cultures and as a complex bacterial community. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Lacticaseibacillus casei and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei showed weak growth (relative to unsupplemented medium; p < 0.05) in the presence of AOS and alginate, while strong growth (p < 0.01) was observed for Bacteroides ovatus when grown with alginate as carbohydrate source. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were for the first time reported to be able to grow on AOS. Further, AOS as substrate was investigated in a complex bacterial community with colonic fermentations in an in vitro gut model. The in vitro gut model indicated that AOS increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in donors with a low endogenous SCFA production, but not to the same level as inulin. Bacteroides was found to dominate the bacteria community after in vitro gut simulation with alginate as substrate. Further, stimulation of Bacteroides was observed with AOS in the gut model for two out of three donors with the third donor being more resistant to change. Our results allowed the identification of AOS utilizers among common gut species. The results also demonstrated the capacity of AOS to elevate SCFA levels and positively modulate the gut microbiota during in vitro simulated colon fermentations, although some subjects appear to be resilient to perturbation via substrate changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy)
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13 pages, 1395 KiB  
Article
Impact of Growing Location on Kakadu Plum Fruit Composition and In Vitro Bioactivity as Determinants of Its Nutraceutical Potential
by Eshetu M. Bobasa, Saleha Akter, Anh Dao Thi Phan, Michael E. Netzel, Daniel Cozzolino, Simone Osborne and Yasmina Sultanbawa
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 13-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010002 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Growing location is known to affect the metabolite content and functionality of wild harvested fruits. Terminalia ferdinandiana, commonly known as Kakadu plum (KP), is among the most commercially important native Australian bush foods. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and in vitro bioactivity [...] Read more.
Growing location is known to affect the metabolite content and functionality of wild harvested fruits. Terminalia ferdinandiana, commonly known as Kakadu plum (KP), is among the most commercially important native Australian bush foods. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and in vitro bioactivity of aqueous acidified ethanol (AAE) and water extracts prepared from KP fruit wild harvested in the Northern Territory (NT) and Western Australia (WA). Compositional analysis included vitamin C, total ellagic acid (TEA), and total phenolic content (TPC), while in vitro bioactivity was assessed through anti-inflammatory (RAW 264.7 macrophages) activity and cell viability (Hep G2) assay. The IC50 of the extracts ranged from 33.3 to 166.3 µg/mL for NO inhibition and CC50 from 1676 to 7337 µg/mL for Hep G2 cell viability inhibition. The AAE KP fruit extracts from the NT exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity and impacted Hep G2 cell viability more than other extracts, most likely due to TEA (3189 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)), vitamin C (180.5 mg/g DW) and TPC (196 mg GAE/g DW) being higher than in any other extract. Overall, the findings of the present study are promising for using KP fruit and derived products in functional foods, nutraceuticals, or dietary supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Nutraceuticals from Editorial Board Members)
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12 pages, 1047 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Monacolin K Combined with Coenzyme Q10, Grape Seed, and Olive Leaf Extracts in Improving Lipid Profile of Patients with Mild-to-Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A Self-Control Study
by Nicholas Angelopoulos, Rodis D. Paparodis, Ioannis Androulakis, Anastasios Boniakos, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Vasilis Tsimihodimos and Sarantis Livadas
Nutraceuticals 2023, 3(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals3010001 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3536
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to assess the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of a novel dietary supplement containing monacolin K combined with the coenzyme Q10 and grape seed and olive tree leaf extracts (Arichol®®) on the lipid profile of [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to assess the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of a novel dietary supplement containing monacolin K combined with the coenzyme Q10 and grape seed and olive tree leaf extracts (Arichol®®) on the lipid profile of adults with moderate cholesterol elevations and an absence of concomitant risk factors. We recruited patients from our Endocrinology Clinics in Greece who had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 140–180 mg/dL, were on no medications affecting serum lipid concentrations, and consented to participate in the present study. All subjects received 8-weeks supplementation with Arichol®® once daily. We measured total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), LDL-C, triglycerides (TG), and liver enzymes with enzymatic colorimetric assays at baseline and at the end of the study, and documented complaints potentially attributable to muscle injury. We recruited a total of 37 subjects, 33 females and 4 males (with a mean age of 55.89 ± 1.50 [mean ± standard error mean, SEM]). The treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction in TC (from 258.9 ± 4.0 mg/dL to 212.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL, p < 0.001), LDL-C (from 173.8 ± 3.5 to 129.0 ± 4.5 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and TG (from 127.0 ± 12.2 to 117.0 ± 9.2, mg/dL, p = 0.012) concentrations, while HDL-C concentrations remained unchanged. There were no alterations in liver enzymes or symptoms of muscle pain in any subject. These promising results suggest that supplementation with this nutraceutical mixture favorably influences lipid concentrations during a short period of administration while exhibiting an excellent safety profile. Larger controlled studies are required to assess the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction with the above compound. Full article
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