Next Issue
Volume 20, May-1
Previous Issue
Volume 20, April-1
 
 
ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20, Issue 8 (April-2 2023) – 182 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on aircraft noise annoyance and insomnia, and to investigate the causal structure of noise annoyance and insomnia in the context of noise decrease by using a structural equation model with non-acoustic and acoustic factors and how they define the response to aircraft noise in residential areas around the Tân Sơn Nhất international airport.
The findings revealed that noise exposure had indirect effects on noise annoyance and insomnia via non-acoustic factors, and that non-acoustic variables significantly influenced noise annoyance and insomnia as much as noise exposure. The study also found a significant and direct path from annoyance to health, highlighting the need for continued research into the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
18 pages, 865 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Exposure to Formal Aquatic Activities on Babies Younger Than 36 Months: A Systematic Review
by Carlos Santos, Carolina Burnay, Chris Button and Rita Cordovil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085610 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4107
Abstract
This systematic review investigated the possible effects of exposing infants to formal activities in aquatic environments. A literature search of eight databases was concluded on 12 December 2022. Studies were eligible if they: (i) focused on 0–36 months of age infants, (ii) addressed [...] Read more.
This systematic review investigated the possible effects of exposing infants to formal activities in aquatic environments. A literature search of eight databases was concluded on 12 December 2022. Studies were eligible if they: (i) focused on 0–36 months of age infants, (ii) addressed the exposure of infants to formal aquatic activities, and (iii) compared the ‘same condition of aquatic exposure with the control’ or ‘before and after exposure’. The PRISMA protocol was used. Articles considered for inclusion (n = 18) were clustered in the health, development, and physiological outcome domains. The results show that research is focused on indoor activities, mainly in baby swimming programs and baby aquatic therapy interventions. Swimming and aquatic therapy practices are generally safe for babies’ health, and there are benefits to preterm and newborns exposed to aquatic therapy once the physiological parameters are maintained in normal and safe patterns. A positive effect is also suggested in general gross and fine motor skills, visual motion perception, cognitive flexibility, and response selection accuracy for infants who participated in aquatic programs. Further investigation with high-quality experimental designs is required to establish the effect of exposure of infants to formal aquatic activities (Systematic Review Registration: CRD42021248054). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Driving Behaviour in Depression Based on Subjective Evaluation and Data from a Driving Simulator
by Vagioula Tsoutsi, Maria Papadakaki, George Yannis, Dimosthenis Pavlou, Maria Basta, Joannes Chliaoutakis and Dimitris Dikeos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085609 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Road traffic collisions are a major issue for public health. Depression is characterized by mental, emotional and executive dysfunction, which may have an impact on driving behaviour. Patients with depression (N = 39) and healthy controls (N = 30) were asked to complete [...] Read more.
Road traffic collisions are a major issue for public health. Depression is characterized by mental, emotional and executive dysfunction, which may have an impact on driving behaviour. Patients with depression (N = 39) and healthy controls (N = 30) were asked to complete questionnaires and to drive on a driving simulator in different scenarios. Driving simulator data included speed, safety distance from the preceding vehicle and lateral position. Demographic and medical information, insomnia (Athens Insomnia Scale, AIS), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS), symptoms of sleep apnoea (StopBang Questionnaire) and driving (Driver Stress Inventory, DSI and Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, DBQ) were assessed. Gender and age influenced almost all variables. The group of patients with depression did not differ from controls regarding driving behaviour as assessed through questionnaires; on the driving simulator, patients kept a longer safety distance. Subjective fatigue was positively associated with aggression, dislike of driving, hazard monitoring and violations as assessed by questionnaires. ESS and AIS scores were positively associated with keeping a longer safety distance and with Lateral Position Standard Deviation (LPSD), denoting lower ability to keep a stable position. It seems that, although certain symptoms of depression (insomnia, fatigue and somnolence) may affect driving performance, patients drive more carefully eliminating, thus, their impact. Full article
19 pages, 1033 KiB  
Systematic Review
White Spots: Prevention in Orthodontics—Systematic Review of the Literature
by Assunta Patano, Giuseppina Malcangi, Roberta Sardano, Antonio Mastrodonato, Grazia Garofoli, Antonio Mancini, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Daniela Di Venere, Francesco Inchingolo, Gianna Dipalma and Angelo Michele Inchingolo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085608 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3067
Abstract
Early-stage dental demineralization, called white spots (WS), get their name from the characteristic colour that enamel takes on due to the acid attack of salivary cariogenic bacteria. They are often associated with fixed orthodontic therapy (FOT) and, if left untreated, evolve into caries [...] Read more.
Early-stage dental demineralization, called white spots (WS), get their name from the characteristic colour that enamel takes on due to the acid attack of salivary cariogenic bacteria. They are often associated with fixed orthodontic therapy (FOT) and, if left untreated, evolve into caries with repercussions on oral health and dental aesthetics. This review aims to identify the most effective prophylaxis strategies to prevent WS during FOT. The search for the reviewed studies was conducted on the Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, selecting English-only articles published in the 5 years from January 2018 to January 2023. The keywords used were “WS” and “fixed orthodontic*”, using “AND” as the Boolean operator. A total of 16 studies were included for qualitative analysis. Prevention begins with maintaining proper oral hygiene; fluoride in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and sealants can be added to prophylaxis and used regularly. Using a laser in combination with fluoride helps prevent the occurrence of WS and assists in the repair processes of initial lesions. Further studies are needed to establish international guidelines for preventing WS in orthodontically treated patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Diseases: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 436 KiB  
Article
Indirect Methods to Determine the Risk of Damage to the Health of Firefighters and Children Due to Exposure to Smoke Emission from Burning Wood/Coal in a Controlled Environment
by Marcelo Sampaio Ocampos, Luana Carolina Santos Leite, Elaine Silva de Pádua Melo, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Karine de Cássia Freitas, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Arunachalam Karuppusamy and Valter Aragão do Nascimento
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085607 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2408
Abstract
People are constantly exposed to particulate matter and chemicals released during fires. However, there are still few studies on gas and particulate emissions related to exposure to burning firewood and charcoal during forest fires, making it difficult to understand the effects on the [...] Read more.
People are constantly exposed to particulate matter and chemicals released during fires. However, there are still few studies on gas and particulate emissions related to exposure to burning firewood and charcoal during forest fires, making it difficult to understand the effects on the health of the population. The objective of this study was to quantify the metal(loid)s present in the smoke from wood and charcoal fires through the deposition of metals in beef topside and pork loin, considering the routes of skin exposure, inhalation, and ingestion, contributing to the understanding of metals in the increase of the risks of cancer and mortality associated with firefighting and children. The concentrations of metals [aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn)] and metalloids arsenic (As) were determined by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP OES) after microwave digestion. Moreover, we assessed the associated risk regarding the elemental intake of these elements through the smoke, using the hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), Total Hazard Index (HIt), and carcinogenic risk (CR). All samples had results for HQ and HIt < 1, indicating a non-potential health risk. However, the carcinogenic risks posed by As and Cr via the three exposure pathways (except for inhalation exposure to children and adults, and by Cr via ingestion and inhalation for children and adults) exceeded the standard threshold. In conclusion, continuous exposure of firefighters or children to smoke from fires containing high concentrations of heavy metals such as As and Cr can be harmful to health. The study used animal tissues; thus, new methods must be developed to quantify the concentration of heavy metals deposited in human tissue when humans are exposed to smoke from fires. Full article
13 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of the Fall Risk Questionnaire
by Ahmad A. Alharbi, Hamad S. Al Amer, Abdulaziz A. Albalwi, Majed Y. Muthaffar, Yousef M. Alshehre, Hani F. Albalawi and Turky E. Alshaikhi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085606 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
A simple, valid, and reliable self-assessment fall-risk questionnaire in Arabic is needed to significantly promote awareness and develop fall-prevention programs. This study translated and adapted the Fall Risk Questionnaire (FRQ) into Arabic and determined its validity and reliability among Saudi Arabian older adults [...] Read more.
A simple, valid, and reliable self-assessment fall-risk questionnaire in Arabic is needed to significantly promote awareness and develop fall-prevention programs. This study translated and adapted the Fall Risk Questionnaire (FRQ) into Arabic and determined its validity and reliability among Saudi Arabian older adults in two phases: (1) cross-culturally adapting the FRQ into Arabic and (2) assessing the adapted questionnaire’s psychometric properties in two sessions with 110 Arabic-speaking participants aged ≥65 years. Pearson’s r showed that the Arabic FRQ had a significant moderate negative relationship with the Berg Balance Scale and fair-to-moderate positive correlations with Five Time Sit to Stand and Time Up and Go. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated a significant area under the curve = 0.81. The cut-off score was 7.5 and associated with 73.7% sensitivity and 73.6% specificity. Internal consistency was estimated as good, with Cronbach’s α = 0.77. Deletion of item 1 slightly increased Cronbach’s α to 0.78. The Arabic FRQ demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability, with an intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92–0.97). It is highly valid and reliable in providing valuable data for evaluating fall risk in adults aged ≥65 years and for consulting a specialist for further investigation if necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3038 KiB  
Essay
Behavior Change in Chronic Health: Reviewing What We Know, What Is Happening, and What Is Next for Hearing Loss
by Sophie Brice and Helen Almond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085605 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Untreated age-related sensorineural hearing loss is challenged by low adoption and adherence to hearing aids for treatment. Hearing care has evolved from traditional clinic-controlled treatment to online consumer-centered hearing care, supported by the increasingly person-centered design of hearing aid technology. Greater evidence and [...] Read more.
Untreated age-related sensorineural hearing loss is challenged by low adoption and adherence to hearing aids for treatment. Hearing care has evolved from traditional clinic-controlled treatment to online consumer-centered hearing care, supported by the increasingly person-centered design of hearing aid technology. Greater evidence and a more nuanced understanding of the personal need for adoption versus adherence to the use of consumer hearing care devices are required. Research considering consumer hearing aid acceptance behavior rests on behavior modification theories to guide clinical approaches to increasing hearing aid adoption and adherence. However, in the context of complex chronic health management, there may be a gap in how these theories effectively align with the needs of consumers. Similarly, market data indicates evolving consumer behavior patterns have implications for hearing care theory and implementation, particularly in terms of sustained behavior change. This essay proposes that evidence, including theory and application, be strengthened by revising basic theoretical premises of personal experience with complex chronic health, in addition to considering recent changes in commercial contexts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Reducing Plastic Pollution by Recovery and Recycling: Evidence from a “Blue Economy” Project Impacting Policy-Making in Italy
by Lorenzo Vassallo, Andrea Appolloni, Chiara Fantauzzi and Rocco Frondizi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085604 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2565
Abstract
This paper recognizes the relevance of the Seabed Cleaning Project, created by the Angelo Vassallo Sindaco Pescatore Foundation in 2010, and presents it as a tool to achieve benefits in environmental, social, and economic terms, in line with the innovative framework of the [...] Read more.
This paper recognizes the relevance of the Seabed Cleaning Project, created by the Angelo Vassallo Sindaco Pescatore Foundation in 2010, and presents it as a tool to achieve benefits in environmental, social, and economic terms, in line with the innovative framework of the Blue Economy. The project suggests a practical, feasible, and scalable solution to plastic pollution that can be obtained thanks to the activity performed by fishermen in cooperation with the municipality and local community (in a multi-level cooperation perspective). The data show a significant reduction of plastic on the seafloor thanks to the project, but further research is needed in order to collect further positive outcomes from different applications of the project. In 2022, the “Salva Mare” Law was approved in the Senate, extending the good practices proposed by the Foundation nationwide and showing how small gestures and concrete actions can provide significant improvements in pursuit of a healthier, safer, greener, and smarter city for the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
The Different Roles of Structural and Cognitive Social Capital on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents
by Jessica Klöckner Knorst, Mario Vianna Vettore, Bruna Brondani, Bruno Emmanuelli and Thiago Machado Ardenghi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085603 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
This study evaluated the relationship of structural and cognitive dimensions of social capital with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of adolescents from southern Brazil. OHRQoL was evaluated using the short version [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the relationship of structural and cognitive dimensions of social capital with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of adolescents from southern Brazil. OHRQoL was evaluated using the short version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14). Structural social capital was measured by attendance of religious meetings and social networks from friends and neighbours. Cognitive social capital was evaluated through trust in friends and neighbours, perception of relationships in the neighbourhood, and social support during hard times. Multilevel Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between social capital dimensions and overall CPQ11-14 scores; higher scores corresponded to worse OHRQoL. The sample comprised 429 adolescents with a mean age of 12 years. Adolescents who attended religious meetings less than once a month or never presented higher overall CPQ11-14 scores. Adolescents who did not trust their friends and neighbours, those who believe that their neighbours did not have good relationships, and those reporting no support during hard times also presented higher overall CPQ11-14 scores. OHRQoL was poorer in individuals who presented lower structural and cognitive social capital, with the greatest impact related to the cognitive dimension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidimensional Aspects of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life)
11 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Athletic Trainers’ Perceptions of and Experience with Social Determinants of Health
by Kelsey J. Picha, Cailee E. Welch Bacon, R. Curt Bay, Joy H. Lewis and Alison R. Snyder Valier
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085602 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1925
Abstract
The role that social determinants of health (SDHs) play in athletic healthcare is gaining attention, yet little is known about athletic trainers’ (ATs) perceptions of and encounters with the impact of SDHs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ATs’ perceptions of [...] Read more.
The role that social determinants of health (SDHs) play in athletic healthcare is gaining attention, yet little is known about athletic trainers’ (ATs) perceptions of and encounters with the impact of SDHs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ATs’ perceptions of various SDHs and their experience treating patients whose health and well-being were influenced by SDHs. This was a cross-sectional, web-based survey completed by 1694 ATs (completion rate = 92.6%; 61.1% female; age = 36.6 ± 10.8 years). The survey consisted of several multipart questions focusing on specific SDHs. Descriptive statistics were used to report frequencies and percentages. Results indicated widespread agreement that SDHs matter to patient health and are of concern in athletic healthcare. The SDHs that ATs most commonly reported encountering included lifestyle choices (n = 1306/1406; 93.0%), social support (n = 1185/1427; 83.0%), income (n = 1167/1502; 77.7%), and access to quality and timely healthcare (n = 1093/1420, 77.0%). The SDHs that ATs least commonly reported having experience with was governmental policy (n = 684/1411; 48%). The perceived importance of SDHs among ATs and their commonly reported experiences managing patient cases in which SDHs negatively influence patients’ health and healthcare suggest that efforts to assess these factors are needed so that strategies to address their influence on athletic healthcare can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient-Centered Care in Sports Medicine Services)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Interdisciplinary Children’s Behavioral Health Workforce Development for Social Work and Nursing
by Elizabeth Palley, Chireau White, Chrisann Newransky and Marissa Abram
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085601 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1780
Abstract
This paper will begin with a review of child health inequities globally, in the United States and in the State of New York. It will then describe a model training program that was designed to educate social workers and nurse practitioners to create [...] Read more.
This paper will begin with a review of child health inequities globally, in the United States and in the State of New York. It will then describe a model training program that was designed to educate social workers and nurse practitioners to create a workforce able to address child behavioral health inequities in the United States (US), specifically New York State. Behavioral health care refers to prevention, care and treatment for mental health and substance abuse conditions as well as physical conditions caused by stress and life crises. This project uses an interdisciplinary training program for nurse practitioner and Master of Social Work students to address workforce shortages in underserved communities in New York State. It will present process evaluation findings to highlight the program’s initial success and will conclude with a discussion of the data that are still needed and the challenges of obtaining this data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child, Health and Equity)
13 pages, 393 KiB  
Article
COVID-19, Wellness and Life Satisfaction in Adolescence: Individual and Contextual Issues
by Margarida Gaspar de Matos, Marina Carvalho, Cátia Branquinho, Catarina Noronha, Bárbara Moraes, Tania Gaspar, Fábio Botelho Guedes, Ana Cerqueira, Osvaldo Santos and Nuno Neto Rodrigues
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085600 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
During and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, several works reflected on young people’s physical and psychological health. The Dual Factor Model, which we refer to as the quadripartite model, is useful for understanding children’s and adolescents’ psychological health and differentiating them [...] Read more.
During and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, several works reflected on young people’s physical and psychological health. The Dual Factor Model, which we refer to as the quadripartite model, is useful for understanding children’s and adolescents’ psychological health and differentiating them regarding their attitude toward the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this investigation, students from the fifth to twelfth year of schooling enrolled in the DGEEC study “Psychological Health and Wellbeing in Portuguese schools” were considered. Four groups were created based on life satisfaction (low or high) and psychological distress (with or without symptoms). The study included 4444 students (M = 13.39 years ± 2.41), of whom 47.8% were male. Of the participants, 27.2% were in the second cycle of primary education, and 72.8% were in lower and upper secondary education. Differences in gender and education level (as a proxy for age) were observed. Additionally, when considering students’ perceptions of changes in their lives following the COVID-19 pandemic (stayed the same, became worse, became better), these three groups were compared concerning personal and contextual variables, revealing significant differences at both the individual and contextual levels. Finally, the study discusses the influence of education and health professionals and the need for friendly public policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of COVID-19 on Mental Health and Well-Being)
12 pages, 1164 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence among Employees in Outpatient Care Services in Hamburg
by Anja Schablon, Volker Harth, Claudia Terschüren, Olaf Kleinmüller, Claudia Wohlert, Claudia Schnabel, Thomas Theo Brehm, Julian Schulze zur Wiesch, Jan Felix Kersten and Albert Nienhaus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085599 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is particularly high for healthcare workers during the pandemic. Home care workers visit many different households per shift. Encounters with mostly elderly patients and their relatives increase the potential for the undetected spread of SARS-CoV-2. In order to [...] Read more.
The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is particularly high for healthcare workers during the pandemic. Home care workers visit many different households per shift. Encounters with mostly elderly patients and their relatives increase the potential for the undetected spread of SARS-CoV-2. In order to gain insight into the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and possible transmission risks in outpatient care, this follow-up study was conducted with nursing services in Hamburg. The aim was to estimate the dynamics of seroprevalence in this occupational group over a 12-month period, to identify occupation-specific risk factors, and to collect information on the vaccination status of the surveyed nursing staff. Antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 IgG against the S1 domain (EUROIMUN Analyser I® Lübeck, Germany) was performed on participating healthcare workers with patient contact at a total of four time points within one year from July 2020 to October 2021 (baseline, follow-up after three, six and twelve months). The data were mostly analysed descriptively. Differences in IgG titres were analysed using variance analysis methods, particularly Tukey’s range test. The seroprevalence was 1.2% (8/678) at baseline and 1.5% (9/581) at the three-month follow-up (T1). At the second follow-up (T2) after six months, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 was available from January 2021 onwards. The prevalence rate of positive IgG antibodies relative to the S1 domain of the spike protein test among unvaccinated individuals was 6.5%. At (T3) after twelve months (July to October 2021), 482 participants were enrolled, and 85.7% of the workers were considered fully vaccinated at this time point, while 51 individuals were unvaccinated. The prevalence was 13.7% (7/51). In our study, a low seroprevalence was found among home care workers, which was lower than in our studies conducted in the clinical setting. Therefore, it can be assumed that the occupational risk of infection is rather low for both the nursing staff and the patients/clients cared for in the outpatient setting. The good provision of protective equipment and the high vaccination rate of the staff probably had a positive influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5973 KiB  
Article
Exposure Assessment of Ambient PM2.5 Levels during a Sequence of Dust Episodes: A Case Study Coupling the WRF-Chem Model with GIS-Based Postprocessing
by Enrico Mancinelli, Elenio Avolio, Mauro Morichetti, Simone Virgili, Giorgio Passerini, Alessandra Chiappini, Fabio Grasso and Umberto Rizza
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085598 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1749
Abstract
A sequence of dust intrusions occurred from the Sahara Desert to the central Mediterranean in the second half of June 2021. This event was simulated by means of the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) regional chemical transport model (CTM). The [...] Read more.
A sequence of dust intrusions occurred from the Sahara Desert to the central Mediterranean in the second half of June 2021. This event was simulated by means of the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) regional chemical transport model (CTM). The population exposure to the dust surface PM2.5 was evaluated with the open-source quantum geographical information system (QGIS) by combining the output of the CTM with the resident population map of Italy. WRF-Chem analyses were compared with spaceborne aerosol observations derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and, for the PM2.5 surface dust concentration, with the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis. Considering the full-period (17–24 June) and area-averaged statistics, the WRF-Chem simulations showed a general underestimation for both the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the PM2.5 surface dust concentration. The comparison of exposure classes calculated for Italy and its macro-regions showed that the dust sequence exposure varies with the location and entity of the resident population amount. The lowest exposure class (up to 5 µg m−3) had the highest percentage (38%) of the population of Italy and most of the population of north Italy, whereas more than a half of the population of central, south and insular Italy had been exposed to dust PM2.5 in the range of 15–25 µg m−3. The coupling of the WRF-Chem model with QGIS is a promising tool for the management of risks posed by extreme pollution and/or severe meteorological events. Specifically, the present methodology can also be applied for operational dust forecasting purposes, to deliver safety alarm messages to areas with the most exposed population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Air Pollution Modelling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Social-Emotional Skills, Career Adaptability, and Agentic School Engagement of First-Year High School Students
by Íris M. Oliveira, Inês de Castro, Ana Daniela Silva and Maria do Céu Taveira
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085597 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
The transition to the first year of high school constitutes a critical moment because it corresponds to the implementation of a career choice, which can impact students’ satisfaction and psychosocial adjustment. The career construction model of adaptation holds potential to explain how students [...] Read more.
The transition to the first year of high school constitutes a critical moment because it corresponds to the implementation of a career choice, which can impact students’ satisfaction and psychosocial adjustment. The career construction model of adaptation holds potential to explain how students adapt to high school, by suggesting linkages among adaptive readiness, resources, responses, and results. However, research applying the career construction model to school transitions, combining social-emotional, career, and academic variables is still needed. This study explores the roles that social-emotional skills (an indicator of adaptive readiness) and career adaptability (an indicator of adaptability resources) play in explaining first-year high school students’ agentic school engagement (an indicator of adapting responses). Measures of social-emotional skills, career adaptability, and school engagement were completed by 136 students (63.2% girls; M age = 15.68). Results from the hierarchical linear regression analysis suggest that social-emotional skills and career adaptability explain 32% of the variance and significantly contribute to explaining agentic school engagement. These findings seem illustrative of the potential of the career construction model of adaptation to deepen knowledge and understanding about the transition to high school and the implementation of career choices. Aligned with the literature, this study supports the calls for integrative psychological practices that acknowledge social-emotional, career, and academic variables when fostering students’ psychosocial adjustment. Full article
9 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
Association between Chronic Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure and Cytokines in Males and Females of Reproductive Age from Kabwe, Zambia
by Andrew Kataba, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Hokuto Nakata, John Yabe, Haruya Toyomaki, Kaampwe Muzandu, Golden Zyambo, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Kennedy Choongo, Mayumi Ishizuka and Shouta M. M. Nakayama
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085596 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Lead (Pb) poisoning remains a great public health challenge globally known to induce a wide range of ailments in both children and adults. The current study investigated the association of chronic environmental Pb exposure and immunomodulatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb) poisoning remains a great public health challenge globally known to induce a wide range of ailments in both children and adults. The current study investigated the association of chronic environmental Pb exposure and immunomodulatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in adult males and females living in Kabwe, Zambia. The standard human cytokine/chemokine Milliplex assay was used to quantify plasma cytokines from four groups categorized as low (<10 μg/dL) and high (>10 μg/dL) blood lead level (BLL) groups, namely, low BLL female (n = 47; BLL = 3.76 μg/dL), low BLL Male (n = 43; BLL = 4.13 μg/dL), high BLL female (n = 21; BLL = 23.5 μg/dL), and high BLL male (n = 18; BLL = 23.7 μg/dL), respectively. The low BLL group was associated with increased TNF-α levels, and the high BLL group was associated with reduced TNF-α levels in female subjects. No associations between BLL and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α cytokines were observed in either females or males, respectively. A negative correlation between BLL and TNF-α was found in female subjects, suggesting that an increase in BLL accompanied by a reduction in TNF-α. The reduced levels of circulating TNF-α in female subjects suggest that chronic Pb exposure could predispose females to immune and inflammation-related disorders than their male counterparts. Further studies are recommended to ascertain the impact of chronic Pb exposure on immunomodulatory cytokines, especially in females. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Toxicology and Hazardous Minerals)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Systematic Observation of Emotional Regulation in the School Classroom: A Contribution to the Mental Health of New Generations
by Marina Alarcón-Espinoza, Paula Samper-Garcia and M. Teresa Anguera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085595 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Emotional regulation is a developmental milestone, as it promotes well-being throughout life. Children between 10 and 12 years old are expected to reach capacities that allow them to regulate themselves emotionally, the school context being a natural setting for this challenge. With the [...] Read more.
Emotional regulation is a developmental milestone, as it promotes well-being throughout life. Children between 10 and 12 years old are expected to reach capacities that allow them to regulate themselves emotionally, the school context being a natural setting for this challenge. With the objective of analyzing the forms of expression and regulation of emotions that are observed in the school classroom, this research was conducted through a mixed methods study that systematically observed nine classes during five sessions each. The design was Nomothetic, Follow-up and Multidimensional; the observations were recorded on audio and in person and were later transformed into data by coding them according to an ad hoc designed instrument. The concordance of the records was evaluated, a sequential analysis of delays (GSEQ5) was performed to detect regularities and existing sequences, and a polar coordinate analysis (HOISAN) observed the relationships between the categories. Finally, the presence of multiple cases was detected. The results detail the ways in which different actors express emotions and interact, regulating the emotions of other people. The results are discussed based on the need to foster educational intentionality and allow students’ emotional self-regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Emotional Regulation and Mental Health)
14 pages, 384 KiB  
Article
Mentalizing, Resilience, and Mental Health Status among Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Teodora Safiye, Medo Gutić, Jakša Dubljanin, Tamara M. Stojanović, Draško Dubljanin, Andreja Kovačević, Milena Zlatanović, Denis H. Demirović, Nemanja Nenezić and Ardea Milidrag
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085594 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2835
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress on healthcare professionals worldwide. Since resilience and mentalizing capacity play very important preventive roles when it comes to mental health, the main goal of this study was to determine whether the capacity for mentalizing and resilience [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress on healthcare professionals worldwide. Since resilience and mentalizing capacity play very important preventive roles when it comes to mental health, the main goal of this study was to determine whether the capacity for mentalizing and resilience could explain the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted in Serbia on a sample of 406 healthcare workers (141 doctors and 265 nurses) aged 19 to 65 (M = 40.11, SD = 9.41). The participants’ mental health status was evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale—DASS-42. The Reflective Functioning Questionnaire was used to evaluate the capacity for mentalizing. Resilience was assessed using the Brief Resilience Scale. The results of the correlation analysis showed that there were negative correlations between resilience and all three dimensions of mental health status: depression, anxiety, and stress. Hypermentalizing was negatively correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress, while hypomentalizing was positively correlated. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that both resilience and hypermentalizing were significant negative predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress, and that hypomentalizing was a significant positive predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Furthermore, socioeconomic status was a significant negative predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Marital status, number of children, and work environment were not statistically significant predictors of any of the three dimensions of mental health status among the healthcare workers in this study. There is an urgent need to establish and implement strategies to foster resilience and enhance the capacity for mentalizing among healthcare workers in order to minimize the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Psychology and Occupational Health)
15 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Knowledge of Obstetric Danger Signs among Pregnant Women in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
by Bin-Eradi Imani Ramazani, Simon-Decap Mabakutuvangilanga Ntala, Daniel Katuashi Ishoso and Monique Rothan-Tondeur
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085593 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
A lack of awareness regarding obstetric danger signs (ODS) is one of the factors that delay a pregnant woman’s decision to seek emergency obstetric care. In developing countries, this delay can lead to high morbidity and mortality among pregnant women. In eastern Democratic [...] Read more.
A lack of awareness regarding obstetric danger signs (ODS) is one of the factors that delay a pregnant woman’s decision to seek emergency obstetric care. In developing countries, this delay can lead to high morbidity and mortality among pregnant women. In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), very few studies have been conducted to assess the level of knowledge of pregnant women about ODS. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the knowledge of pregnant women about ODS in health facilities in eastern DRC. This quantitative cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was conducted in 19 health facilities in the Kasongo health zone in the south Maniema Province of eastern DRC. A total of 624 pregnant women aged 12–49 years were interviewed in this study. Of these, 60.6% were secondary school graduates, >99% were married, 85.5% were cultivators, and 67.9% were Muslims. The knowledge of ODS among pregnant women was low (21.9%). The most cited danger signs during pregnancy, labor/delivery, and postpartum included severe abdominal pain and severe vaginal bleeding. Additionally, pregnant women aged 30–39 years (p = 0.015) and those who had given birth once (p = 0.049), twice (p = 0.003), 3–5 times (p = 0.004), and >5 times (p = 0.009) were more likely to be aware of ODS than others. Our findings indicated that pregnant women have little knowledge of ODS, which makes it difficult for them to take prompt decisions to seek emergency obstetric care. Thus, strategies to increase the knowledge of pregnant women about obstetrical danger signs by healthcare providers during prenatal consultations (antenatal care) must be developed to improve their rapid decision-making skills during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Sustaining and Expanding Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) for Public Safety Personnel across Canada: A Survey of Stakeholder Perspectives
by Caeleigh A. Landry, Janine D. Beahm, Hugh C. McCall and Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085592 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Public safety personnel (PSP) experience an elevated risk of mental health problems and face barriers to treatment. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been tailored to PSP to improve access to mental health care. In this study, we sought to investigate perceptions of [...] Read more.
Public safety personnel (PSP) experience an elevated risk of mental health problems and face barriers to treatment. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been tailored to PSP to improve access to mental health care. In this study, we sought to investigate perceptions of ICBT, particularly among those with and without prior knowledge of ICBT and between PSP leaders and non-leaders. A survey was administered to 524 PSP from across Canada to identify (a) how PSP perceive ICBT, (b) the extent of organizational support for tailored ICBT in PSP organizations, particularly leadership’s support, and (c) perceived facilitators and barriers to funding tailored ICBT. The results indicated that PSP perceive ICBT to have more advantages than disadvantages. PSP who had previously heard of tailored ICBT had more positive perceptions. PSP indicated that there is a need for ICBT, and PSP leaders indicated their support for the implementation of tailored ICBT. The study identified that there is a need for increasing awareness of the effectiveness of and need for ICBT in order to facilitate funding of services. Overall, the current study indicates that PSP support ICBT as a valued form of therapy and that policy makers and service providers seeking to provide ICBT to PSP may increase support for ICBT services through more education and awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2nd Edition: Public Safety Personnel: Mental Health and Well-Being)
13 pages, 1875 KiB  
Article
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Air Pollutants in the Province of Ferrara, Northern Italy: An Ecological Study
by Annibale Antonioni, Vittorio Govoni, Lisa Brancaleoni, Alessandro Donà, Enrico Granieri, Mauro Bergamini, Renato Gerdol and Maura Pugliatti
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085591 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
The etiopathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still largely unknown, but likely depends on gene–environment interactions. Among the putative sources of environmental exposure are air pollutants and especially heavy metals. We aimed to investigate the relationship between ALS density and the concentration [...] Read more.
The etiopathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is still largely unknown, but likely depends on gene–environment interactions. Among the putative sources of environmental exposure are air pollutants and especially heavy metals. We aimed to investigate the relationship between ALS density and the concentration of air pollution heavy metals in Ferrara, northern Italy. An ecological study was designed to correlate the map of ALS distribution and that of air pollutants. All ALS cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2017 (Ferrara University Hospital administrative data) were plotted by residency in 100 sub-areas, and grouped in 4 sectors: urban, rural, northwestern and along the motorway. The concentrations of silver, aluminium, cadmium, chrome, copper, iron, manganese, lead, and selenium in moss and lichens were measured and monitored in 2006 and 2011. Based on 62 ALS patients, a strong and direct correlation of ALS density was observed only with copper concentrations in all sectors and in both sexes (Pearson coefficient (ρ) = 0.758; p = 0.000002). The correlation was higher in the urban sector (ρ = 0.767; p = 0.000128), in women for the overall population (ρ = 0.782, p = 0.000028) and in the urban (ρ = 0.872, p = 0.000047) population, and for the older cohort of diagnosed patients (2000–2009) the assessment correlated with the first assessment of air pollutants in 2006 (ρ = 0.724, p = 0.008). Our data is, in part, consistent with a hypothesis linking copper pollution to ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health and Epidemiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 420 KiB  
Article
Alcohol Use, Anxiety and Depression among French Grandes Écoles Engineering Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Marion Pitel, Olivier Phan, Céline Bonnaire and Tristan Hamonniere
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085590 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1938
Abstract
In French Grandes Écoles, heavy alcohol consumption seems to be generalized and largely tolerated, leading to particular concerns about Alcohol Use Disorder and harmful alcohol practices among students. The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological difficulties, and two coexisting scenarios seemed to [...] Read more.
In French Grandes Écoles, heavy alcohol consumption seems to be generalized and largely tolerated, leading to particular concerns about Alcohol Use Disorder and harmful alcohol practices among students. The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological difficulties, and two coexisting scenarios seemed to emerge regarding alcohol consumption: A decrease in alcohol consumption linked to the absence of festive events, and an increase in solitary alcohol consumption to cope with lockdowns. The aim of this exploratory study is to investigate the evolution of alcohol consumption, consumption motives and the relationship of these factors to the anxiety and the depression of French Grandes Écoles students during the COVID-19 pandemic, depending on their residential status. After the last lockdown, 353 students completed a questionnaire measuring alcohol consumption, motivation to drink, anxiety and depression during and after the COVID-19 period. Although students confined to campus were more likely to increase their alcohol use, they also presented higher well-being scores than those who lived off campus. A significant proportion of students were aware of their increased alcohol use due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the motives attributed to their increased consumption highlight the need for vigilance and specialized support facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wellbeing and Mental Health among Students and Young People)
12 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Development of the Movement Pattern Observation Tool (MPOT)—An Observational Tool to Measure Limb Movements during Elementary School Recess
by Gemma Kate Webb and Deborah J. Rhea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085589 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Background: The US Center for Disease Control estimates that only 24% of American elementary-aged children participate in the recommended 60 min of daily physical activity. As activity levels decline, elementary schools should consider increasing movement opportunities. Activity-driven school days, where children can move [...] Read more.
Background: The US Center for Disease Control estimates that only 24% of American elementary-aged children participate in the recommended 60 min of daily physical activity. As activity levels decline, elementary schools should consider increasing movement opportunities. Activity-driven school days, where children can move their limbs freely, may increase memory retention performance, behavioral impulse control, as well as bone density, and muscle strength. Unstructured, outdoor play (recess) may provide an opportunity for the brain, bone, and muscle-stimulating limb movements to be utilized. To date, no research has focused on whether the modern child actively uses limb movements during recess, nor to what degree. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable assessment tool (Movement Pattern Observation Tool, MPOT) to observe and record limb movements (unilateral, bilateral, and contralateral movements) of elementary children during recess, defined in this study as unstructured, outdoor play. Methods: Three observers used the MPOT to complete thirty-five observations at one elementary school during kindergarten through fifth-grade recess breaks. Results: Interrater reliability approached excellent, being that excellent is above 0.90. The ICC of the master observer and observer 3 value was 0.898 (95% CI 0.757–0.957), and the ICC of the master observer and observer 2 was 0.885 (95% CI 0.599–0.967), p < 0.03. Conclusion: Inter-rater reliability was achieved through a three-phase process. This reliable recess observation tool will contribute to the body of research linking recess to physical and cognitive health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Play: Contributions to Health and Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Experiences of People with Cardiovascular Disease during COVID-19 in Sweden: A Qualitative Study
by Catharina Sjödahl Hammarlund, Anna Norlander and Christina Brogårdh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085588 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Although people with cardiovascular conditions were subjected to more rigorous restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is limited knowledge of how the restrictions affected their lives and well-being. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe how people with cardiovascular conditions experienced [...] Read more.
Although people with cardiovascular conditions were subjected to more rigorous restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is limited knowledge of how the restrictions affected their lives and well-being. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe how people with cardiovascular conditions experienced their life situation and physical and mental health during the second wave of the pandemic in Sweden. Fifteen participants (median age 69 years; nine women) were individually interviewed, and data were analyzed with systematic text condensation. The findings revealed that some of the participants were fearful of contracting COVID-19 as their medical condition made them vulnerable. Additionally, the restrictions changed their daily routines and their ability to take part in social activities, as well as their access to specialized outpatient care (medical check-ups and physiotherapy). Although emotional and psychological distress were present, several participants found strategies that reduced their worries, such as exercising and meeting friends outdoors. However, some had adopted a more sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diets. These findings indicate that healthcare professionals should provide individualized support to persons with cardiovascular diseases in order to find well-functioning emotion- and problem-focused strategies aimed at improving physical and mental health during crises such as pandemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 337 KiB  
Brief Report
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Alcohol-Attributed Deaths in the United States, 1999–2020
by Ibraheem M. Karaye, Nasim Maleki and Ismaeel Yunusa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085587 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
The disparities in alcohol-attributed death rates among different racial and ethnic groups in the United States (US) have received limited research attention. Our study aimed to examine the burden and trends in alcohol-attributed mortality rates in the US by race and ethnicity from [...] Read more.
The disparities in alcohol-attributed death rates among different racial and ethnic groups in the United States (US) have received limited research attention. Our study aimed to examine the burden and trends in alcohol-attributed mortality rates in the US by race and ethnicity from 1999 to 2020. We used national mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (CDC WONDER) database and employed the ICD-10 coding system to identify alcohol-related deaths. Disparity rate ratios were calculated using the Taylor series, and Joinpoint regression was used to analyze temporal trends and calculate annual and average annual percentage changes (APCs and AAPCs, respectively) in mortality rates. Between 1999 and 2020, 605,948 individuals died from alcohol-related causes in the US. The highest age-adjusted mortality rate (AAMR) was observed among American Indian/Alaska Natives, who were 3.6 times more likely to die from alcohol-related causes than Non-Hispanic Whites (95% CI: 3.57, 3.67). An examination of trends revealed that recent rates have leveled among American Indians/Alaska Natives (APC = 17.9; 95% CI: −0.3, 39.3) while increasing among Non-Hispanic Whites (APC = 14.3; 95% CI: 9.1, 19.9), Non-Hispanic Blacks (APC = 17.0; 95% CI: 7.3, 27.5), Asians/Pacific Islanders (APC = 9.5; 95% CI: 3.6, 15.6), and Hispanics (APC = 12.6; 95% CI: 1.3, 25.1). However, when the data were disaggregated by age, sex, census region, and cause, varying trends were observed. This study underscores the disparities in alcohol-related deaths among different racial and ethnic groups in the US, with American Indian/Alaska Natives experiencing the highest burden. Although the rates have plateaued among this group, they have been increasing among all other subgroups. To address these disparities and promote equitable alcohol-related health outcomes for all populations, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the underlying factors and develop culturally sensitive interventions. Full article
25 pages, 5370 KiB  
Review
Thermal Contaminants in Coffee Induced by Roasting: A Review
by David Silva da Costa, Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque, Helena Soares Costa and Adriana Pavesi Arisseto Bragotto
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085586 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
Roasting is responsible for imparting the main characteristics to coffee, but the high temperatures used in the process can lead to the formation of several potentially toxic substances. Among them, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, acrylamide, furan and its derivative compounds, α-dicarbonyls and advanced glycation [...] Read more.
Roasting is responsible for imparting the main characteristics to coffee, but the high temperatures used in the process can lead to the formation of several potentially toxic substances. Among them, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, acrylamide, furan and its derivative compounds, α-dicarbonyls and advanced glycation end products, 4-methylimidazole, and chloropropanols stand out. The objective of this review is to present a current and comprehensive overview of the chemical contaminants formed during coffee roasting, including a discussion of mitigation strategies reported in the literature to decrease the concentration of these toxicants. Although the formation of the contaminants occurs during the roasting step, knowledge of the coffee production chain as a whole is important to understand the main variables that will impact their concentrations in the different coffee products. The precursors and routes of formation are generally different for each contaminant, and the formed concentrations can be quite high for some substances. In addition, the study highlights several mitigation strategies related to decreasing the concentration of precursors, modifying process conditions and eliminating/degrading the formed contaminant. Many of these strategies show promising results, but there are still challenges to be overcome, since little information is available about advantages and disadvantages in relation to aspects such as costs, potential for application on an industrial scale and impacts on sensory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processed Food: Nutrition, Safety and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1541 KiB  
Case Report
Infantile Hemangioma: A Common Lesion in a Vulnerable Population
by Samon Nazemian, Shohreh Sharif and Esther L. B. Childers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085585 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is important to all dentists, particularly dentists providing services to pediatric populations, because significant morbidity and mortality can occur from vascular lesions in children. Specialists of the oral cavity have the responsibility to identify patients with IH, a lesion that [...] Read more.
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is important to all dentists, particularly dentists providing services to pediatric populations, because significant morbidity and mortality can occur from vascular lesions in children. Specialists of the oral cavity have the responsibility to identify patients with IH, a lesion that could be potentially life threatening. We present a case of IH and will provide a narrative review of the most recent literature. We discuss the diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, complications, and impact on routine dental procedures. A proper diagnosis is crucial as oral and perioral IH are considered high-risk due to the increased risk of ulceration and feeding impairment. Referral to a hemangioma specialist for comprehensive team treatment is optimal. The natural history of IH consists of a long proliferative phase, which manifests as clinically visible growth. As a result of early encounters with patients, the pediatric dentist may often be considered the primary care provider. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Service Access and Social Support among Vulnerable Children)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
“You Feel a Sense of Accomplishment”: Outdoor Adventure Experiences of Youths with Visual Impairments during a One-Week Sports Camp
by Lauren J. Lieberman, Katie Ericson, Melanie Perreault, Pamela Beach and Kelsey Williams
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085584 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
There are many cognitive, physical, and social–emotional benefits for youths from participating in outdoor adventure activities. However, youths with visual impairments are not given the same opportunities to participate in outdoor adventure activities as their peers without disabilities. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
There are many cognitive, physical, and social–emotional benefits for youths from participating in outdoor adventure activities. However, youths with visual impairments are not given the same opportunities to participate in outdoor adventure activities as their peers without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the outdoor adventure experiences of youths with visual impairments participating in a week-long sports camp. Thirty-seven youths with visual impairment (ages 9–19 years) attending a one-week sports camp participated in this study. Participants engaged in a variety of outdoor adventure activities throughout the week of camp (e.g., sailing, hiking, rock climbing, biking, kayaking). Participants provided written accounts about their outdoor adventure experiences and were observed throughout the week during each activity to examine instructional strategies and task modifications. Additionally, 10 randomly chosen athletes, their one-on-one coaches, and five outdoor recreation specialists participated in focus group interviews. The data analysis revealed three major themes: (1) Benefits, (2) Support, and (3) Barriers. The subthemes of benefits were enjoyment, independence, and relationships; the subthemes of support were instructional strategies and task modifications; and subthemes for barriers were fear and anxiety, exclusion and low expectations, and lack of equipment. These findings support the inclusion of youths with visual impairments in all outdoor adventure programming with appropriate instruction and modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Disabilities)
8 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Description of Trends over the Week in Alcohol-Related Ambulance Attendance Data
by Kerri Coomber, Peter G. Miller, Jessica J. Killian, Rowan P. Ogeil, Naomi Beard, Dan I. Lubman, Ryan Baldwin, Karen Smith and Debbie Scott
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085583 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Alcohol harms are often determined using a proxy measure based on temporal patterns during the week when harms are most likely to occur. This study utilised coded Australian ambulance data from the Victorian arm of the National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS) to investigate [...] Read more.
Alcohol harms are often determined using a proxy measure based on temporal patterns during the week when harms are most likely to occur. This study utilised coded Australian ambulance data from the Victorian arm of the National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS) to investigate temporal patterns across the week for alcohol-related ambulance attendances in 2019. These patterns were examined by season, regionality, gender, and age group. We found clear temporal peaks: from Friday 6:00 p.m. to Saturday 3:59 a.m. for both alcohol-involved and alcohol-intoxication-related attendance, from Saturday 6:00 p.m. to Sunday 4:59 a.m. for alcohol-involved attendances, and from Saturday 5:00 p.m. to Sunday 4:49 a.m. for alcohol-intoxication-related attendances. However, these temporal trends varied across age groups. Additionally, hours during Thursday and Sunday evenings also demonstrated peaks in attendances. There were no substantive differences between genders. Younger age groups (18–24 and 25–29 years) had a peak of alcohol-related attendances from 7:00 p.m. to 7:59 a.m. on Friday and Saturday nights, whereas the peak in attendances for 50–59 and 60+ years was from 5:00 p.m. to 2:59 a.m. on Friday and Saturday nights. These findings further the understanding of the impacts of alcohol during different times throughout the week, which can guide targeted policy responses regarding alcohol use and health service capacity planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol-Related Violence)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 1496 KiB  
Article
Fish—To Eat or Not to Eat? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of the Conundrum of Fish Consumption in the Context of Marine Pollution in Indonesia
by Oyedolapo A. Anyanwu, Sara C. Folta, Fang Fang Zhang, Kenneth Chui, Virginia R. Chomitz, Martha I. Kartasurya and Elena N. Naumova
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085582 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Background: The Indonesian government faces a dilemma of promoting fish consumption for its health benefits and to ease food insecurity, while at the same time seeking effective approaches to reduce the high levels of marine pollution. However, the factors associated with fish consumption [...] Read more.
Background: The Indonesian government faces a dilemma of promoting fish consumption for its health benefits and to ease food insecurity, while at the same time seeking effective approaches to reduce the high levels of marine pollution. However, the factors associated with fish consumption in the face of persistent high levels of marine pollution are not well elucidated in the literature. Objectives: This was an explorative study to investigate the sociodemographic factors related to fish consumption and to understand the perspectives of expert informants on marine pollution and its impact on fish quality and availability in Indonesia. Methods: We characterized fish consumption among respondents aged 15 years and older in the fifth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (n = 31,032), based on their sociodemographic profiles, and developed multinomial regression models to assess the relationship between respondents’ sociodemographic profiles and quintiles of fish consumption. We also conducted in-depth interviews on fish consumption and marine pollution with key informants from Indonesia (n = 27). We then used a convergent mixed-methods design to synthesize the results of both datasets. Results: Fish was the most frequently consumed animal-source food reported by survey respondents: 2.8 (±2.6) days/week. More younger respondents (15–19 years) reported relatively lower consumption of fish (9.3% in Q1 versus 5.9% in Q5) compared to respondents 50 years and older (37% in Q1 versus 39.9% in Q5; p < 0.01). When classified by region, more respondents from the Java region reported lower consumption of fish (86.5% in Q1 versus 53% in Q5; p < 0.01). Key-informants’ perspectives corroborated the survey results by indicating that the younger generation tends not to want to consume fish; informants expanded the survey results by suggesting that fish is scarce in the Java region due to high levels of marine pollution. Informants further implied that there is low awareness about the impact of marine pollution on fish quality among most of the Indonesian population. Conclusion: Evidence from both data sources converge on differential preference for fish consumption by age group. Informants’ perspectives also link marine pollution to fish scarcity, which poses a threat to food security among low-income Indonesians and to human health globally. More studies are needed to corroborate our findings and inform policy guidelines to reduce marine pollution while promoting fish consumption in Indonesia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 385 KiB  
Article
Enacting Mana Māori Motuhake during COVID-19 in Aotearoa (New Zealand): “We Weren’t Waiting to Be Told What to Do”
by Lynne Russell, Michelle Levy, Elizabeth Barnao, Nora Parore, Kirsten Smiler and Amohia Boulton
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(8), 5581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20085581 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2016
Abstract
Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa (New Zealand), were at the centre of their country’s internationally praised COVID-19 response. This paper, which presents the results of qualitative research conducted with 27 Māori health leaders exploring issues impacting the effective delivery of primary health [...] Read more.
Māori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa (New Zealand), were at the centre of their country’s internationally praised COVID-19 response. This paper, which presents the results of qualitative research conducted with 27 Māori health leaders exploring issues impacting the effective delivery of primary health care services to Māori, reports this response. Against a backdrop of dominant system services closing their doors or reducing capacity, iwi, hapū and rōpū Māori (‘tribal’ collectives and Māori groups) immediately collectivised, to deliver culturally embedded, comprehensive COVID-19 responses that served the entire community. The results show how the exceptional and unprecedented circumstances of COVID-19 provided a unique opportunity for iwi, hapū and rōpū Māori to authentically activate mana motuhake; self-determination and control over one’s destiny. Underpinned by foundational principles of transformative Kaupapa Māori theory, Māori-led COVID-19 responses tangibly demonstrated the outcomes able to be achieved for everyone in Aotearoa when the wider, dominant system was forced to step aside, to be replaced instead with self-determining, collective, Indigenous leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellness for Indigenous Peoples)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop