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Article

Environmental Pollution to Blame for Depressive Disorder?

1
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
2
Grupo de Especiación Química de Aerosoles Orgánicos Atmosféricos, Instituto de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y Cambio Climático, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
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Laboratory of Psychoimmunology, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Calzada México-Xochimilco 101, Colonia San Lorenzo Huipulco, Tlalpan, Ciudad de Mexico 14370, Mexico
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Grupo de Biología y Química Atmosférica, Instituto de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y Cambio Climático, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
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Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031737
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 4 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 2 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health in Latin America and the Caribbean)
Public concern has emerged about the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on neuropsychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence suggests that exposure to EDCs is associated with the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) and could result in neural degeneration. The interaction of EDCs with hormonal receptors is the best-described mechanism of their biological activity. However, the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal adrenal axis has been reported and linked to neurological disorders. At a worldwide level and in Mexico, the incidence of MDD has recently been increasing. Of note, in Mexico, there are no clinical associations on blood levels of EDCs and the incidence of the MDD. Methodology: Thus, we quantified for the first time the serum levels of parent compounds of two bisphenols and four phthalates in patients with MDD. The levels of di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP), butyl-benzyl-phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethyl-phthalate (DEP), bisphenol A (BPA), and bisphenol S (BPS) in men and women with or without MDD were determined with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results/conclusion: We found significant differences between concentrations of BBP between controls and patients with MDD. Interestingly, the serum levels of this compound have a dysmorphic behavior, being much higher in women (~500 ng/mL) than in men (≤10 ng/mL). We did not observe significant changes in the serum concentrations of the other phthalates or bisphenols tested, neither when comparing healthy and sick subjects nor when they were compared by gender. The results point out that BBP has a critical impact on the etiology of MDD disorder in Mexican patients, specifically in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; serum levels; phthalates; bisphenols depression; serum levels; phthalates; bisphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Segovia-Mendoza, M.; Palacios-Arreola, M.I.; Pavón, L.; Becerril, L.E.; Nava-Castro, K.E.; Amador-Muñoz, O.; Morales-Montor, J. Environmental Pollution to Blame for Depressive Disorder? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031737

AMA Style

Segovia-Mendoza M, Palacios-Arreola MI, Pavón L, Becerril LE, Nava-Castro KE, Amador-Muñoz O, Morales-Montor J. Environmental Pollution to Blame for Depressive Disorder? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031737

Chicago/Turabian Style

Segovia-Mendoza, Mariana, Margarita Isabel Palacios-Arreola, Lenin Pavón, Luis Enrique Becerril, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Omar Amador-Muñoz, and Jorge Morales-Montor. 2022. "Environmental Pollution to Blame for Depressive Disorder?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1737. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031737

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