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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 18, Issue 7 (April-1 2021) – 521 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the United States, millions of children experience of having a parent incarcerated. Research details that parental incarceration is connected poorer health. However, parental incarceration is not experienced in isolation. Rather, children who experience parental incarceration also experience a variety of co-occurring adversities in childhood. The findings from this study showed that children who have had a parent incarcerated also experience multiple forms of childhood adversity. While children who have had a parent incarcerated are in worse health than those who do not, this association was largely attenuated when incarceration-exposed children were compared to groups of children exposed to a varying degree of alternative adversities. Accordingly, intervention and prevention efforts targeting parental incarceration should focus on co-occurring family stressors and child adversities. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk among Postpartum Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073848 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with sexual risk, especially during adolescence, and with maternal and child health outcomes for women of reproductive age. However, no work has examined how ACE exposure relates to sexual risk for [...] Read more.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with sexual risk, especially during adolescence, and with maternal and child health outcomes for women of reproductive age. However, no work has examined how ACE exposure relates to sexual risk for women during the postpartum period. In a convenience sample of 460 postpartum women, we used linear and logistic regression to investigate associations between ACE exposure (measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale) and five sexual risk outcomes of importance to maternal health: contraceptive use, efficacy of contraceptive method elected, condom use, rapid repeat pregnancy, and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). On average, women in the sample were 25.55 years of age (standard deviation = 5.56); most identified as Black (60.4%), White (18%), or Latina (14.8%). Approximately 40% were exposed to adversity prior to age 18, with the modal number of experiences among those exposed as 1. Women exposed to ACEs were significantly less likely to use contraception; more likely to elect less-efficacious contraceptive methods; and used condoms less frequently (p = 0.041 to 0.008). ACE exposure was not associated with rapid repeat pregnancy or STI acquisition, p > 0.10. Screening for ACEs during pregnancy may be informative to target interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior during the postpartum period. Full article
Open AccessSystematic Review
Health Literacy in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073847 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Health literacy plays a crucial role during pregnancy, as the mother’s health behavior influences both her own health and that of her child. To the authors’ best knowledge, no comprehensive overview on evidence of the health literacy of pregnant women and its impact [...] Read more.
Health literacy plays a crucial role during pregnancy, as the mother’s health behavior influences both her own health and that of her child. To the authors’ best knowledge, no comprehensive overview on evidence of the health literacy of pregnant women and its impact on health outcomes during pregnancy exists. Therefore, this review aims to assess health literacy levels in pregnant women, whether health literacy is associated with outcomes during pregnancy and whether effective interventions exist to improve the health literacy of pregnant women. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EBSCO, resulting in 14 studies. The results show mixed levels of health literacy in pregnant women. Limited health literacy is associated with unhealthy behaviors during pregnancy. Mixed health literacy levels can be attributed to the recruitment site, the number of participants and the measurement tool used. Quality assessment reveals that the quality of the included studies is moderate to good. The review revealed that randomized controlled trials and interventions to improve health literacy in pregnant women are rare or do not exist. This is crucial in the light of the mixed health literacy levels found among pregnant women. Healthcare providers play a key role in this context, as pregnant women with limited health literacy rely on them as sources of health information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Literacy, Patient Empowerment and Preventive Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Two-Year Follow-Up of 4-mm-Long Implants Used as Distal Support of Full-Arch FDPs Compared to 10-mm Implants Installed after Sinus Floor Elevation. A Randomized Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073846 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Background: In edentulous patients, bone resorption cannot allow the installation of standard implants and it is demanded to use short implants in the residual alveolar bone or longer implants in grafted bone. Aim: To compare the survival and bone level changes of standard [...] Read more.
Background: In edentulous patients, bone resorption cannot allow the installation of standard implants and it is demanded to use short implants in the residual alveolar bone or longer implants in grafted bone. Aim: To compare the survival and bone level changes of standard plus short 4-mm implants used as distal support of a maxillary full-arch fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with standard (10-mm) implants placed in association with a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure. Material and Methods: Full-arch FDPs supported by six implants were randomly placed in both groups. In the control group, all implants were 10 mm long and 4.1 mm in diameter. The distal implant in both sides of the maxilla was installed after 4 months from bilaterally sinus floor elevation. In the test group (short group), the distal implant in both sides of the maxilla was 4 mm long and 4.1 mm in diameter. No sinus floor elevations were performed in the test group. Clinical assessments and X-rays were taken at prosthesis delivering and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were also evaluated before surgery and after 6, 12, and 24 months. Results: The changes over time of the bone level for the short implants were −0.01 ± 0.11 mm, −0.04 ± 0.13 mm, −0.17 ± 0.29 mm, and −0.28 ± 0.37 mm after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from prosthesis delivering, respectively. For the standard implants, bone changes were −0.21 ± 0.33 mm (p = 0.103), −0.30 ± 0.32 mm (p = 0.023), −0.40 ± 0.37 mm (p = 0.144), and −0.54 ± 0.49 mm (p = 0.128), respectively. A statistically relevant difference was found only at 12 months after loading between the two groups. Conclusions: Similar results on implant survival rate and marginal bone loss were observed for the short and standard implants, placed in association with a bilateral sinus floor augmentation procedure, used as distal support of a maxillary full-arch FDP. A statistically relevant difference was found only at 12 months after loading between the two groups (p = 0.023). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Dentistry, Implantology and Maxillo-Facial Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of an Endurance and Strength Mixed Circuit Training on Regional Fat Thickness: The Quest for the “Spot Reduction”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073845 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas is related to many physiological and hormonal variables. Spot reduction (SR) is a training protocol aimed to stimulate lipolysis locally, even though this training protocol has not been extensively studied in recent years. Thus, the [...] Read more.
Accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas is related to many physiological and hormonal variables. Spot reduction (SR) is a training protocol aimed to stimulate lipolysis locally, even though this training protocol has not been extensively studied in recent years. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effect of a circuit-training SR on subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adults. Methods: Fourteen volunteers were randomly assigned to spot reduction (SR) or to a traditional resistance training (RT) protocol. Body composition via bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and subcutaneous adipose tissue via skinfold and ultrasound were measured before and after eight weeks of training. Results: SR significantly reduced body mass (p < 0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (p < 0.05). Conclusions: circuit-training SR may be an efficient strategy to reduce in a localized manner abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue depot. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Patient Safety Related to Microbiological Contamination of the Environment of a Multi-Profile Clinical Hospital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073844 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Nosocomial infections pose a serious burden for hospitals, patients, and the entire society. The aim of the study was to assess the microbiological cleanliness of the hospital environment through quantitative and qualitative analysis of microbiological contamination of air and surfaces in inpatient treatment [...] Read more.
Nosocomial infections pose a serious burden for hospitals, patients, and the entire society. The aim of the study was to assess the microbiological cleanliness of the hospital environment through quantitative and qualitative analysis of microbiological contamination of air and surfaces in inpatient treatment facilities, based on the example of a large clinical hospital in Poland. Data were collected between 2012 and 2018 in premises of a large teaching hospital in Gdansk using the sedimentation method and the impact method using the Aerideal apparatus (Biomerieux). In the analyzed clinical center, the microbiological cleanliness tests in most of the hospital rooms in the analyzed period showed an acceptable number of saprophytic microorganisms. Of all the tested samples, 1159 (21.8%) were positive, indicating the presence of microorganisms in the tested sample. Species potentially pathogenic for hospital patients were identified, constituting 20.8% of all positive samples (4.6% of all samples). Significantly higher proportion of microorganisms potentially dangerous to patients were isolated from sanitary facilities. Due to the potentially pathogenic microorganisms detected in the tested samples, the authors suggest that in the analyzed hospital, the areas requiring a specific level of microbiological purity should be designated and described, with [specifically] defined cleaning and disinfection protocols. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of Conspiracy Theories in the Spread of COVID-19 across the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073843 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inspires various conspiracy theories, which could divert public attention, alter human behaviors, and consequently affect the spread of the pandemic. Here we estimate the relation of the online attention on COVID-19-related conspiracy theories to human mobility, [...] Read more.
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inspires various conspiracy theories, which could divert public attention, alter human behaviors, and consequently affect the spread of the pandemic. Here we estimate the relation of the online attention on COVID-19-related conspiracy theories to human mobility, as well as to the numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases, during 14 March 2020 to 28 August 2020. We observe that the online attention to COVID-19 conspiracy theories is significantly and negatively related to human mobility, but its negative impact is noticeably less than those of the attention to official information and personal protection measures. Since human mobility significantly promotes the spread of COVID-19, the attention to official information and personal protection measures lowers COVID-19 cases by 16.16% and 9.41%, respectively, while attention to conspiracy theories only reduces the COVID-19 cases by 6.65%. In addition, we find that in the states with higher online attention to COVID-19 conspiracy theories, the negative relation of the attention to conspiracy theories is much weaker than that in states where there is less concern about conspiracies. This study stresses the necessity of restricting the online transmission of unfounded conspiracy theories during a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Geographic Factors Associated with Poorer Outcomes in Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19 in Primary Health Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073842 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Background: The prognosis of older age COVID-19 patients with comorbidities is associated with a more severe course and higher fatality rates but no analysis has yet included factors related to the geographical area/municipality in which the affected patients live, so the objective [...] Read more.
Background: The prognosis of older age COVID-19 patients with comorbidities is associated with a more severe course and higher fatality rates but no analysis has yet included factors related to the geographical area/municipality in which the affected patients live, so the objective of this study was to analyse the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 in terms of sex, age, comorbidities, and geographic variables. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 6286 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 was analysed, considering demographic data, previous comorbidities and geographic variables. The main study variables were hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death due to worsening symptoms; and the secondary variables were sex, age, comorbidities and geographic variables (size of the area of residence, distance to the hospital and the driving time to the hospital). A comparison analysis and a multivariate Cox model were performed. Results: The multivariate Cox model showed that women had a better prognosis in any type of analysed prognosis. Most of the comorbidities studied were related to a poorer prognosis except for dementia, which is related to lower admissions and higher mortality. Suburban areas were associated with greater mortality and with less hospital or ICU admission. Distance to the hospital was also associated with hospital admission. Conclusions: Factors such as type of municipality and distance to hospital act as social health determinants. This fact must be taken account in order to stablish specifics prevention measures and treatment protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Prognosis, Outcomes and Long-Term Sequelae)
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Open AccessReview
Adjusted Indirect and Mixed Comparisons of Conservative Treatments for Hallux Valgus: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073841 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Background: Hallux valgus (HV) deformity is a common, potentially debilitating deformity. And evidence with high-quality for the conservative treatments of HV deformity is still required.; AIMS: To compare the effects of different conservative treatments for hallux valgus deformity by using the method [...] Read more.
Background: Hallux valgus (HV) deformity is a common, potentially debilitating deformity. And evidence with high-quality for the conservative treatments of HV deformity is still required.; AIMS: To compare the effects of different conservative treatments for hallux valgus deformity by using the method of network meta-analysis.; Study Design: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OVID, and CINAHL. The included studies should have the characteristics that: (1) participants with hallux valgus deformity of any age (2) conservative treatments (3) Reported the hallux valgus (HVA), the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the score of the Visual Analog Scale, and the score of Foot Function Index.; Results: 11 studies were included in this review. The agreement between reviewers reached a kappa value of 0.75. The results of the network meta-analysis showed that a combination of exercise and toe separator, night splints, and dry needling are most likely to be the best choice for reducing the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle, and toe separators (with or without exercise), dry needling, and manipulation (with or without ice treatment) have advantages in improving the subjective feeling of patients.; Conclusions: Multi-disciplinary conservative treatments have a great potential for hallux valgus deformity. More research with high-quality is needed to give a comprehensive and reasonable scheme of a holistic and long-term treatment protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Foot Disorders and Its Treatment)
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Open AccessBrief Report
How Self-Control Predicts Moral Decision Making: An Exploratory Study on Healthy Participants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073840 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Research on moral reasoning calls into question self-control, which encompasses impulsivity, compulsivity, and inhibitory control. However, a thorough investigation exploring how these three dimensions can affect moral reasoning in response to different scenarios is unavailable. We addressed this topic by testing the predictive [...] Read more.
Research on moral reasoning calls into question self-control, which encompasses impulsivity, compulsivity, and inhibitory control. However, a thorough investigation exploring how these three dimensions can affect moral reasoning in response to different scenarios is unavailable. We addressed this topic by testing the predictive role of these three dimensions of self-control on appraisals for ethical violations related with different types of scenarios. Overall, our results suggest that all three dimensions of self-control are involved in moral reasoning, depending on the type of appraisal and provided moral scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applying Clinical Psychology to Medical Conditions)
Open AccessArticle
Detecting Digoxin Toxicity by Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Electrocardiography
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073839 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Although digoxin is important in heart rate control, the utilization of digoxin is declining due to its narrow therapeutic window. Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of digoxin toxicity is common due to the lack of awareness and the time-consuming laboratory work that is involved. [...] Read more.
Although digoxin is important in heart rate control, the utilization of digoxin is declining due to its narrow therapeutic window. Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of digoxin toxicity is common due to the lack of awareness and the time-consuming laboratory work that is involved. Electrocardiography (ECG) may be able to detect potential digoxin toxicity based on characteristic presentations. Our study attempted to develop a deep learning model to detect digoxin toxicity based on ECG manifestations. This study included 61 ECGs from patients with digoxin toxicity and 177,066 ECGs from patients in the emergency room from November 2011 to February 2019. The deep learning algorithm was trained using approximately 80% of ECGs. The other 20% of ECGs were used to validate the performance of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) system and to conduct a human-machine competition. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the performance of ECG interpretation between humans and our deep learning system. The AUCs of our deep learning system for identifying digoxin toxicity were 0.912 and 0.929 in the validation cohort and the human-machine competition, respectively, which reached 84.6% of sensitivity and 94.6% of specificity. Interestingly, the deep learning system using only lead I (AUC = 0.960) was not worse than using complete 12 leads (0.912). Stratified analysis showed that our deep learning system was more applicable to patients with heart failure (HF) and without atrial fibrillation (AF) than those without HF and with AF. Our ECG-based deep learning system provides a high-accuracy, economical, rapid, and accessible way to detect digoxin toxicity, which can be applied as a promising decision supportive system for diagnosing digoxin toxicity in clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Psychosocial and Somatic Effects of Relocation from Remote Canadian First Nation Communities to Urban Centres on Indigenous Peoples with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073838 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease, also referred to as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a prevalent and chronic condition for which treatment is necessary as a means of survival once affected individuals reach the fifth and final stage of the disease. Dialysis is a form [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease, also referred to as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a prevalent and chronic condition for which treatment is necessary as a means of survival once affected individuals reach the fifth and final stage of the disease. Dialysis is a form of maintenance treatment that aids with kidney functioning once a normal kidney is damaged. There are two main types of dialysis: hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Each form of treatment is discussed between the patient and nephrologist and is largely dependent upon the following factors: medical condition, ability to administer treatment, supports, geographical location, access to necessary equipment/supplies, personal wishes, etc. For Indigenous Peoples who reside on remote Canadian First Nation communities, relocation is often recommended due to geographical location and limited access to both health care professionals and necessary equipment/supplies (i.e., quality of water, access to electricity/plumbing, etc.). Consequently, the objective of this paper is to determine the psychosocial and somatic effects for Indigenous Peoples with ESRD if they have to relocate from remote First Nation communities to an urban centre. A review of the literature suggests that relocation to urban centres has negative implications that are worth noting: cultural isolation, alienation from family and friends, somatic issues, psychosocial issues, loss of independence and role adjustment. As a result of relocation, it is evident that the impact is profound in terms of an individuals’ mental, emotional, physical and spiritual well-being. Ensuring that adequate social support and education are available to patients and families would aid in alleviating stressors associated with managing chronic kidney disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
‘I’m Gonna Tell You about How Mrs Rona Has Affected Me’. Exploring Young People’s Experiences of the COVID-19 Pandemic in North East England: A Qualitative Diary-Based Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073837 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Children and young people risk being ‘disproportionately harmed’ by the COVID-19 pandemic. Whilst an evolving body of literature focuses on the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people, less attention has been paid to the [...] Read more.
Children and young people risk being ‘disproportionately harmed’ by the COVID-19 pandemic. Whilst an evolving body of literature focuses on the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of children and young people, less attention has been paid to the collection of qualitative, exploratory data. The aim of this study was to examine young people in North East England’s experiences of COVID-19 and associated control measures. Flexible, qualitative diaries were collected with 31 young people aged 13–17 for six weeks between July and October 2020. Diary extracts were curated using Instagram Direct Messaging (DM), email and text messaging. At the end of this study, participants took part in a follow-up interview (conducted by telephone or Zoom), asking them to reflect on their diary entries. Thematic analysis of diaries and interviews yielded three central themes: (1) impacts upon mental health and emotional wellbeing; (2) disruptions and changes to education and school life; and (3) frustration, burden and responsibility. These findings highlight acute mental health impacts (loneliness, isolation, anxiety) as well as longer-term repercussions from disrupted education (missed parts of curriculum, home schooling, cancelled exams, periods of isolation) on young people aged 13–17 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Teaching Methodologies and School Organization in Early Childhood Education and Its Association with Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073836 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Early childhood represents a crucial period for child development. Physical activity is essential in this process, but studies show that children are very inactive and do not meet the recommended minimums. Due to the large proportion of time they spend at school, it [...] Read more.
Early childhood represents a crucial period for child development. Physical activity is essential in this process, but studies show that children are very inactive and do not meet the recommended minimums. Due to the large proportion of time they spend at school, it is necessary to examine active and sedentary behaviors in these environments. The aim of the study is to analyze the amount and intensity of physical activity in preschool children during the school day according to the methodology used. Using accelerometry, the amount and intensity of physical activity and sedentary behavior of 156 children aged 4–6 years at different times of the school day were evaluated. The results revealed that preschoolers spend most of their class time sedentary, with children participating in active methodologies registering the highest amount and intensity of physical activity. Recess and specific motor sessions are the most active times, although the latter should increase the time of intense activity that they imply. To increase physical activity during the school day, it is necessary to establish movement integration methodologies, while increasing the number and adjusting the duration of specific motor sessions and of recesses, so that the maximum possible use is made of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity in Childhood and Adolescence)
Open AccessArticle
Item Reduction, Psychometric and Biometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Body Perception Questionnaire—Short Form (BPQ-SF): The BPQ-22
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073835 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Body awareness disorders and reactivity are mentioned across a range of clinical problems. Constitutional differences in the control of the bodily state are thought to generate a vulnerability to psychological symptoms. Autonomic nervous system dysfunctions have been associated with anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic [...] Read more.
Body awareness disorders and reactivity are mentioned across a range of clinical problems. Constitutional differences in the control of the bodily state are thought to generate a vulnerability to psychological symptoms. Autonomic nervous system dysfunctions have been associated with anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Though interoception may be a transdiagnostic mechanism promoting the improvement of clinical symptomatology, few psychometrically sound, symptom-independent, self-report measures, informed by brain–body circuits, are available for research and clinical use. We validated the Italian version of the body perception questionnaire (BPQ)—short form and found that response categories could be collapsed from five to three and that the questionnaire retained a three-factor structure with items reduced from 46 to 22 (BPQ-22). The first factor was loaded by body awareness items; the second factor comprised some items from the body awareness scale and some from the subdiaphragmatic reactivity scale (but all related to bloating and digestive issues), and the third factor by supradiaphragmatic reactivity items. The BPQ-22 had sound psychometric properties, good convergent and discriminant validity and test–retest reliability and could be used in clinical and research settings in which the body perception assessment is of interest. Psychometric findings in light of the polyvagal theory are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting the Dynamics of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States Using Graph Theory-Based Neural Networks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073834 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 446
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented social and economic consequences in the United States. Therefore, accurately predicting the dynamics of the pandemic can be very beneficial. Two main elements required for developing reliable predictions include: (1) a predictive model and (2) an indicator [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented social and economic consequences in the United States. Therefore, accurately predicting the dynamics of the pandemic can be very beneficial. Two main elements required for developing reliable predictions include: (1) a predictive model and (2) an indicator of the current condition and status of the pandemic. As a pandemic indicator, we used the effective reproduction number (Rt), which is defined as the number of new infections transmitted by a single contagious individual in a population that may no longer be fully susceptible. To bring the pandemic under control, Rt must be less than one. To eliminate the pandemic, Rt should be close to zero. Therefore, this value may serve as a strong indicator of the current status of the pandemic. For a predictive model, we used graph neural networks (GNNs), a method that combines graphical analysis with the structure of neural networks. We developed two types of GNN models, including: (1) graph-theory-based neural networks (GTNN) and (2) neighborhood-based neural networks (NGNN). The nodes in both graphs indicated individual states in the United States. While the GTNN model’s edges document functional connectivity between states, those in the NGNN model link neighboring states to one another. We trained both models with Rt numbers collected over the previous four days and asked them to predict the following day for all states in the United States. The performance of these models was evaluated with the datasets that included Rt values reflecting conditions from 22 January through 26 November 2020 (before the start of COVID-19 vaccination in the United States). To determine the efficiency, we compared the results of two models with each other and with those generated by a baseline Long short-term memory (LSTM) model. The results indicated that the GTNN model outperformed both the NGNN and LSTM models for predicting Rt. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Toxic Metals in Cereals in Cape Verde: Risk Assessment Evaluation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073833 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Consumption of cereals and cereal-based products represents 47% of the total food energy intake in Cape Verde. However, cereals also contribute to dietary exposure to metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and providing nutritional information is a high-priority challenge for [...] Read more.
Consumption of cereals and cereal-based products represents 47% of the total food energy intake in Cape Verde. However, cereals also contribute to dietary exposure to metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and providing nutritional information is a high-priority challenge for the Cape Verde government. In this study, toxic metal content (Cr, Ni, Sr, Al, Cd, and Pb) is determined in 126 samples of cereals and derivatives (rice, corn, wheat, corn flour, wheat flour, corn gofio) consumed in Cape Verde. Wheat flour samples stand out, with the highest Sr (1.60 mg/kg), Ni (0.25 mg/kg) and Cr (0.13 mg/kg) levels. While the consumption of 100 g/day of wheat would contribute to 13.2% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Ni, a consumption of 100 g/day of wheat flour would contribute to 8.18% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of Cd. Results show relevant Al levels (1.17–13.4 mg/kg), with the highest level observed in corn gofio. The mean Pb average content in cereals is 0.03–0.08 mg/kg, with the highest level observed in corn gofio. Al and Pb levels are lower in cereals without husks. Without being a health risk, the consumption of 100 g/day of wheat contributes to 17.5% of the European benchmark doses lower confidence limit (BMDL) of Pb for nephrotoxic effects; the consumption of 100 g/day of corn gofio provides an intake of 1.34 mg Al/day (13.7% of the TWI) and 8 µg Pb/day (20% of the BMDL for nephrotoxic effects). A strategy to minimize the dietary exposure of the Cape Verdean population to toxic metals from cereals should consider the continuous monitoring of imported cereals on arrival in Cape Verde, the assessment of the population’s total diet exposure to toxic metals and educational campaigns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Weekly Variations in the Workload of Turkish National Youth Wrestlers: A Season of Complete Preparation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073832 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the weekly acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), and strain (wTS) across the preparation season (PS), and (2) to analyze the variations of wAW, wCW, wACWR, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to describe the weekly acute workload (wAW), chronic workload (wCW), acute/chronic workload ratio (wACWR), training monotony (wTM), and strain (wTS) across the preparation season (PS), and (2) to analyze the variations of wAW, wCW, wACWR, wTM, and training strain (wTS) between periods of PS (early-, mid-, and end). Ten elite young wrestlers were monitored daily during the 32 weeks of the season. Internal loads were monitored using session rating of perceived exertion, and weekly workload measures of wACWR, wTM, and wTS were also calculated. Results revealed that the greatest differences were found between early- and mid-PS for wAW (p = 0.004, g = 0.34), wCW (p = 0.002, g = 0.90), wTM (p = 0.005, g = 0.39), and wTS (p = 0.009, g = −1.1), respectively. The wACWR showed significant differences between early- and end-PS (p ≤ 0.001, g = −0.30). We concluded that wAW, wCW, and wTM are slightly lower during the first weeks of the PS. The wTM remained relatively high during the entire season, while wAW and wCW remained balanced throughout the PS. The greatest workload changes seem to happen from the early to mid-PS season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Happiness among Malaysian Elderly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073831 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Happiness is an essential component to experience healthy ageing. Hence, understanding the factors that contribute to happiness is important. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with happiness among the elderly population in Malaysia. In this study, 1204 respondents were recruited from [...] Read more.
Happiness is an essential component to experience healthy ageing. Hence, understanding the factors that contribute to happiness is important. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with happiness among the elderly population in Malaysia. In this study, 1204 respondents were recruited from urban and rural areas in Selangor. A face-to-face interview was conducted using the Bahasa Malaysia version of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study questionnaire. The inclusion criteria include Malaysians who are 60-years old and above and can converse in the Malaysian language. Those who encounter less than seven scores for the Abbreviated Mental Test were excluded from the study. Among the 1204 respondents, 953 (79.2%) were happy. Sociodemographic characteristics showed that being a men, age of 60 to 74 years, and living in urban areas were significantly associated with happiness. A logistic regression model showed that locality (aOR 1.61), income category (Bottom 40% aOR 0.49; Middle-class group 40% aOR 1.40), social engagement (active aOR 1.77; less active aOR 1.25), receiving emotional support (aOR 2.11) and handgrip strength (aOR 1.02) were significantly associated with happiness. Thus, ensuring the elderly population in receiving emotional support and active social engagement among them can enhance their happiness level. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Models for Prediction of Cumulative Trauma Disorders Applied to the Maquiladora Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073830 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Temperature gradient changes on the surface of the skin or in the middle of the body are signs of a disease. The aim of this study is to develop quantitative models for the prediction of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) arising from highly repetitive [...] Read more.
Temperature gradient changes on the surface of the skin or in the middle of the body are signs of a disease. The aim of this study is to develop quantitative models for the prediction of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) arising from highly repetitive activities, considering risk factors, such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate, to prevent injuries in manufacturing factory operators. This research involved 19 individuals from the area of sanding and 14 individuals from the area of tolex in manufacturing factories who had their vital signs and somatometry taken, as well as thermal images of their hands in the dorsal and palmar areas; an evaluation by the OCRA method was also applied. Factors such as BP and heart rate were determined to significantly influence the injuries, but no strong association with BMI was found. Quadratic regression models were developed, the estimates of which were adequately adjusted to the variable (R2 and R2 adjusted > 0.70). When integrating the factors of the OCRA method to the generated models, a better fit was obtained (R2 and adjusted R2 > 0.80). In conclusion, the participants who present levels out of the normal range in at least one of the factors have high probabilities of developing injuries in their wrists. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion
Unexpected Effects on Some Spanish Cultural Landscapes of the Mediterranean Diet
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073829 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The declaration of the Mediterranean Diet as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in order to preserve a cultural and gastronomical legacy included the protection of lifestyles, knowledge, sociability, and environmental relationships. However, the patrimonialization, popularization, and globalization of a certain conception of this [...] Read more.
The declaration of the Mediterranean Diet as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in order to preserve a cultural and gastronomical legacy included the protection of lifestyles, knowledge, sociability, and environmental relationships. However, the patrimonialization, popularization, and globalization of a certain conception of this diet have turned it into a de-territorialized global phenomenon. As a consequence of this process, it has been necessary to notably increase the production of its ingredients to satisfy its growing demand, which, in turn, has generated “secondary effects” in some Mediterranean environments of Southeastern Spain. If, on the one hand, their wealth has increased and population has been established, on the other hand, the continuity of certain cultural landscapes linked to local knowledge and particular lifestyles has been broken, replacing them with agro-industrial landscapes exclusively at the service of production. This, at the same time, has caused social and environmental inequalities Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet: Health, Environment, Culture, Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle
The Nexus between Urbanization and Traffic Accessibility in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073828 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 359
Abstract
China has entered the stage where urban agglomerations underpin and spearhead the county’s urbanization. Urban agglomerations in China have become economic growth poles, and the constantly improving transport networks in these agglomerations bring about opportunities for redistributing labor forces and promoting regional economic [...] Read more.
China has entered the stage where urban agglomerations underpin and spearhead the county’s urbanization. Urban agglomerations in China have become economic growth poles, and the constantly improving transport networks in these agglomerations bring about opportunities for redistributing labor forces and promoting regional economic development, trade, and social progress for all. This is the foundation and fuel for urban development. However, lack of knowledge of the spatial features of, and the interrelationship between, regional urbanization and traffic accessibility constrains effective urban planning and decision-making. To fill this gap, this study attempted to evaluate the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of urbanization levels and traffic accessibility in 1995, 2005, and 2015 in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), China. The spatial interaction, spatial dependence effect, and spatial spillover effect between urbanization and traffic accessibility were tested by employing the bivariate spatial autocorrelation model and spatial regression models. The results showed that the urbanization level and traffic accessibility in the MRYRUA shot up over time and manifested similar spatial distribution characteristics. The global bivariate spatial autocorrelation coefficients were positive and significant during the period studied, and the main relationship types were the high urbanization and high traffic accessibility types and low urbanization and low traffic accessibility types. The spatial regression results showed that there was a significant positive association between urbanization and traffic accessibility, but with a significant scale effect. Urbanization is not only affected by the traffic accessibility of the individual grid unit but also by those in the adjacent or further grid units. The findings in this study provide important implications for urbanization development and transportation planning. The spatial dependence effect and spatial spillover effect between urbanization and traffic accessibility should be considered in future urban planning and transportation planning. The rational allocation of resources and inter-regional joint management can be an effective path toward regional sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Social Support and Optimism as Protective Factors for Mental Health among 7765 Healthcare Workers in Germany during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of the VOICE Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073827 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health worldwide, particularly among healthcare workers (HCWs). Risk and protective factors for depression and generalized anxiety in healthcare workers need to be identified to protect their health and ability to work. Social support and optimism are [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting mental health worldwide, particularly among healthcare workers (HCWs). Risk and protective factors for depression and generalized anxiety in healthcare workers need to be identified to protect their health and ability to work. Social support and optimism are known protective psychosocial resources, but have not been adequately studied in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers in Germany. Methods: Within the first wave of the VOICE study (n = 7765), a longitudinal web-based survey study among healthcare workers in Germany, we assessed symptoms of depression (PHQ-2) and generalized anxiety (GAD-2), social support (ENRICHD Social Support Inventory; ESSI), and generalized optimism as well as sociodemographic, occupational, and COVID-19 related variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the constructs. Results: The analyses revealed that higher levels of social support and optimism were associated with lower levels of depression and generalized anxiety. They showed a higher association with depression and generalized anxiety than demographic or occupational risk factors such as female gender and direct contact with infected individuals. Conclusion: Psychosocial resources such as social support and optimism appear to contribute to successful coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and should be considered in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessReview
Stiff Landings, Core Stability, and Dynamic Knee Valgus: A Systematic Review on Documented Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Male and Female Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073826 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common ligament injury of the knee, accounting for between 100,000 and 200,000 injuries among athletes per year. ACL injuries occur via contact and non-contact mechanisms, with the former being more common in males and the [...] Read more.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common ligament injury of the knee, accounting for between 100,000 and 200,000 injuries among athletes per year. ACL injuries occur via contact and non-contact mechanisms, with the former being more common in males and the later being more common in females. These injuries typically require surgical repair and have relatively high re-rupture rates, resulting in a significant psychological burden for these individuals and long rehabilitation times. Numerous studies have attempted to determine risk factors for ACL rupture, including hormonal, biomechanical, and sport- and gender-specific factors. However, the incidence of ACL injuries continues to rise. Therefore, we performed a systematic review analyzing both ACL injury video analysis studies and studies on athletes who were pre-screened with eventual ACL injury. We investigated biomechanical mechanisms contributing to ACL injury and considered male and female differences. Factors such as hip angle and strength, knee movement, trunk stability, and ankle motion were considered to give a comprehensive, joint by joint analysis of injury risk and possible roles of prevention. Our review demonstrated that poor core stability, landing with heel strike, weak hip abduction strength, and increased knee valgus may contribute to increased ACL injury risk in young athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Psychological Profile in Female Cyclists and Its Relationship with Age, Training Parameters, Sport Performance, and Injury Incidence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073825 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Previous studies have highlighted the importance of psychology on sports performance and its relationship with the incidence of sport injuries. The objectives of the present investigation were: (1) to analyze the psychological profile of female cyclists as a function of age, training parameters, [...] Read more.
Previous studies have highlighted the importance of psychology on sports performance and its relationship with the incidence of sport injuries. The objectives of the present investigation were: (1) to analyze the psychological profile of female cyclists as a function of age, training parameters, sport performance, and injuries suffered and (2) to design a model to predict their psychological profile. Sixty-one female cyclists participated in the study. Differences were found as a function of a competitive category for team cohesion (F = 5.035; p = 0.002), sport level effect on performance evaluation (F = 5.030; p = 0.004) and team cohesion (F = 64.706; p = 0.000), the effect of having reached the podium in the last competition on performance evaluation (t = 2.087; p = 0.041) and motivation (t = 4.035; p = 0.000), and injury severity on stress management (F = 6.204; p = 0.008). The factors that affected the psychological profile of the female cyclists the most, in addition to the independent psychological parameters, were the number of podiums in the last year and the years of cycling experience. In conclusion, there is an interaction between the psychological profile, sociodemographic variables, training, performance, and injuries suffered in female cyclists. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Environmental Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Virus RNA in Health Facilities in Brazil and a Systematic Review on Contamination Sources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3824; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073824 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 761
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 environmental monitoring can track the rate of viral contamination and can be used to establish preventive measures. This study aimed to detect by RT-PCR the presence of SARS-CoV-2 from inert surface samples in public health settings with a literature review about surface [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 environmental monitoring can track the rate of viral contamination and can be used to establish preventive measures. This study aimed to detect by RT-PCR the presence of SARS-CoV-2 from inert surface samples in public health settings with a literature review about surface contamination and its burden on spread virus. Samples were collected from health settings in Curitiba, Brazil, between July and December 2020. A literature review was conducted using PRISMA. A total of 711 environmental surface samples were collected from outpatient areas, dental units, doctors’ offices, COVID-19 evaluation areas, and hospital units, of which 35 (4.9%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The frequency of environmental contamination was higher in primary care units than in hospital settings. The virus was detected on doctors’ personal items. Remarkably, the previously disinfected dental chair samples tested positive. These findings agree with those of other studies in which SARS-CoV-2 was found on inanimate surfaces. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on surfaces in public health settings, including those not meant to treat COVID-19, indicates widespread environmental contamination. Therefore, the intensification of disinfection measures for external hospital areas may be important for controlling community COVID-19 dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Falsified Drugs in the Opinion of Patients Diagnosed with Cardiovascular Diseases—Nationwide and Cross-Sectional Study on the Example of EU-Member Country
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073823 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Background: In light of a falsified medications pandemic, understanding the patient perspective on falsified medicines is warranted. Our study aimed to investigate the perspectives regarding falsified medicines among patients with cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted based on a questionnaire: (i) [...] Read more.
Background: In light of a falsified medications pandemic, understanding the patient perspective on falsified medicines is warranted. Our study aimed to investigate the perspectives regarding falsified medicines among patients with cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted based on a questionnaire: (i) Respondents suffering from cardiovascular diseases and (ii) respondents not being chronically ill. Only participants below 50 years of age were included. Results: We enrolled 1200 respondents total, 800 in the study group and 400 in the control group (in cooperation with a professional public opinion research center). The vast majority of participants agreed that community pharmacies are the only place that ensures the secure purchasing of non-falsified drugs (67.01% study group and 65.25% control group; p < 0.01). The majority of respondents were convinced that purchasing medications on the Internet is associated with a higher risk of receiving falsified drugs. Patients diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases and those with “non-satisfactory financial situation” had significantly decreased likelihoods of obtaining a high score in general knowledge on falsified medications (OR = 0.64 and OR = 0.58, respectively). Conclusions: Awareness of the risks associated with falsified drugs among patients with cardiovascular diseases remains high but still insufficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysing Normative Influences on the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among 0–14 Years Old Girls in Senegal: A Spatial Bayesian Hierarchical Regression Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073822 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice affecting the health and rights of women and girls. This has raised global attention on the implementation of strategies to eliminate the practice in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A recent [...] Read more.
Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice affecting the health and rights of women and girls. This has raised global attention on the implementation of strategies to eliminate the practice in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A recent study on the trends of FGM/C among Senegalese women (aged 15–49) which examined how individual- and community-level factors affected the practice, found significant regional variations in the practice. However, the dynamics of the practice among girls (0–14 years old) is not fully understood. This paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap by investigating normative influences in the persistence of the practice among Senegalese girls, identify and map ‘hotspots’. Methods: We do so by using a class of Bayesian hierarchical geospatial modelling approach implemented in R statistical software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) using R2BayesX package. We employed Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques for full Bayesian inference, while model fit and complexity assessment utilised deviance information criterion (DIC). Results: We found that a girl’s probability of cutting was higher if her mother was cut, supported FGM/C continuation or believed that the practice was a religious obligation. In addition, living in rural areas and being born to a mother from Diola, Mandingue, Soninke or Poular ethnic group increased a girl’s likelihood of being cut. The hotspots identified included Matam, Tambacounda and Kolda regions. Conclusions: Our findings offer a clearer picture of the dynamics of FGM/C practice among Senegalese girls and prove useful in informing evidence-based intervention policies designed to achieve the abandonment of the practice in Senegal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of the Conceptualization of Pain Questionnaire: A Measure to Study How Children Conceptualize Pain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073821 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 291
Abstract
(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The aims of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess a child’s concept of pain and to evaluate its psychometric properties; (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional, two-phase, mixed-method study. A total of 324 individuals aged 8 to 17 years old responded to the newly created questionnaire. The Conceptualization of Pain Questionnaire (COPAQ) was calibrated using the Rasch model. The chi-square test was used for the fit statistics. Underfit and overfit of the model were determined and a descriptive analysis of infit and outfit was conducted to identify who responded erratically. Internal consistency was measured using the Person Separation Index (PSI); (3) Results: Fit to the Rasch model was good. Suitable targeting indicated which items were simple to answer; Person Fit identified 9.56% children who responded erratically; PSI = 0.814; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that COPAQ is a measure of a child’s concept of pain that is easy to administer and respond to. It has a good fit and a good internal consistency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Children's Health)
Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Contribution of Metacognitions, Impulsiveness, and Thought Suppression to Behavioural Addictions in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073820 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 626
Abstract
The most common behavioral addictions in adolescents are Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD), and Problematic Social Networks Use (PSNU). In the present study, we investigated whether thought suppression and impulsiveness mediate the relationship between metacognitions and these three behavioral [...] Read more.
The most common behavioral addictions in adolescents are Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD), and Problematic Social Networks Use (PSNU). In the present study, we investigated whether thought suppression and impulsiveness mediate the relationship between metacognitions and these three behavioral addictions (IGD, CSBD and PSNU). In Study 1 (n = 471), we examined whether online gaming thought suppression and impulsiveness mediate the relationship between metacognitions and IGD. In Study 2 (n = 453), we examined whether sex thought suppression and impulsiveness mediate the relationship between metacognitions and CSBD. In Study 3 (n = 1004), we examined whether social media thought suppression and impulsiveness mediate the relationship between metacognitions and PSNU. Results of path analysis indicated, across the three studies, the importance of both thought suppression and impulsiveness as mediators between metacognitions and the three behavioral addictions (IGD, CSBD and PSNU) being investigated. These findings provide an opportunity for therapists as well as educators to gain a better insight into the link between metacognitions, thought suppression, impulsiveness, and behavioral addictions as part of developmental behavior among adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Barriers and Facilitators for Exclusive Breastfeeding in Women’s Biopsychosocial Spheres According to Primary Care Midwives in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073819 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 458
Abstract
(1) The objective of our study is to determine, from a primary care midwife’s perspective, which biopsychosocial factors can favour or be detrimental to exclusive breast feeding. (2) The study was carried out in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) and is based on qualitative [...] Read more.
(1) The objective of our study is to determine, from a primary care midwife’s perspective, which biopsychosocial factors can favour or be detrimental to exclusive breast feeding. (2) The study was carried out in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) and is based on qualitative methodology. Twenty in-depth interviews were carried out with midwives working in primary care centres in Tenerife, using a content analysis approach. The transcript data was then encoded following an inductive approach. (3) According to the perceptions of the primary care midwives who were interviewed, the barriers and facilitators that influence exclusive breastfeeding related to the biopsychosocial spheres of women are, at an individual level, the physical and emotional aspects during the postnatal period; at the relationship level, the presence or not of support from the close family and partner; at the community level, the environment and social networks the new mothers may have; and at the work level, characteristics of jobs and early return to work. (4) The findings of our research can help healthcare professionals to approach the promotion and encouragement of exclusive breast feeding at each of the levels studied, with the aim of increasing rates following recommendations issued by The World Health Organization. Full article
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