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Stiff Landings, Core Stability, and Dynamic Knee Valgus: A Systematic Review on Documented Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Male and Female Athletes

1
Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA
2
Shriners Hospital for Children—Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Han C. G. Kemper and Paul Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073826
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 6 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sport and Health)
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are the most common ligament injury of the knee, accounting for between 100,000 and 200,000 injuries among athletes per year. ACL injuries occur via contact and non-contact mechanisms, with the former being more common in males and the later being more common in females. These injuries typically require surgical repair and have relatively high re-rupture rates, resulting in a significant psychological burden for these individuals and long rehabilitation times. Numerous studies have attempted to determine risk factors for ACL rupture, including hormonal, biomechanical, and sport- and gender-specific factors. However, the incidence of ACL injuries continues to rise. Therefore, we performed a systematic review analyzing both ACL injury video analysis studies and studies on athletes who were pre-screened with eventual ACL injury. We investigated biomechanical mechanisms contributing to ACL injury and considered male and female differences. Factors such as hip angle and strength, knee movement, trunk stability, and ankle motion were considered to give a comprehensive, joint by joint analysis of injury risk and possible roles of prevention. Our review demonstrated that poor core stability, landing with heel strike, weak hip abduction strength, and increased knee valgus may contribute to increased ACL injury risk in young athletes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACL; knee; valgus; abduction; adduction; flexion; trunk; core ACL; knee; valgus; abduction; adduction; flexion; trunk; core
MDPI and ACS Style

Larwa, J.; Stoy, C.; Chafetz, R.S.; Boniello, M.; Franklin, C. Stiff Landings, Core Stability, and Dynamic Knee Valgus: A Systematic Review on Documented Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Male and Female Athletes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073826

AMA Style

Larwa J, Stoy C, Chafetz RS, Boniello M, Franklin C. Stiff Landings, Core Stability, and Dynamic Knee Valgus: A Systematic Review on Documented Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Male and Female Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(7):3826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073826

Chicago/Turabian Style

Larwa, Joseph, Conrad Stoy, Ross S. Chafetz, Michael Boniello, and Corinna Franklin. 2021. "Stiff Landings, Core Stability, and Dynamic Knee Valgus: A Systematic Review on Documented Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ruptures in Male and Female Athletes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 7: 3826. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073826

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