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Saprochaete clavata Infection in Immunosuppressed Patients: Systematic Review of Cases and Report of the First Oral Manifestation, Focusing on Differential Diagnosis

1
Head and Neck Department, “Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli—IRCCS”, School of Dentistry, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini, Radioterapia Oncologica ed Ematologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
3
Sezione di Ematologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche ed Ematologiche, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Via Luigi de Crecchio, 6, 80138 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul Tchounwou and Denis Bourgeois
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052385
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 1 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Health)
Background: Saprochaete clavata infection is an emerging issue in immunosuppressed patients, causing fulminant fungaemia. The purpose of this systematic review of cases is to retrieve all cases of S. clavata infection and describe oral lesions as the first manifestation of S. clavata infection. Methods: We report the first case of intraoral S. clavata infection in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) affected subject, presenting as multiple grayish rapidly growing ulcerated swellings, and provide a review of all published cases of infection caused by S. clavata, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, conducted by searching SCOPUS, Medline, and CENTRAL databases. Only articles in English were considered. Individual patient data were analyzed to identify risk factors for S. clavata infection. Results: Seventeen of 68 retrieved articles were included in the review reporting data on 96 patients (mean age 51.8 years, 57 males and 38 females). Most cases were disseminated (86) with a 60.2% mortality rate. Ninety-five were hematological patients, with AML being the most common (57 cases). Conclusions:S. clavata infection in immunosuppressed patients has a poor prognosis: middle-age patients, male gender and Acute Myeloid Leukemia should be considered risk factors. In immunosuppressed patients, the clinical presentation can be particularly unusual, imposing difficult differential diagnosis, as in the reported case. View Full-Text
Keywords: Saprochaete clavata; Geotrichum clavatum; rare mycoses Saprochaete clavata; Geotrichum clavatum; rare mycoses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lajolo, C.; Rupe, C.; Schiavelli, A.; Gioco, G.; Metafuni, E.; Contaldo, M.; Sica, S. Saprochaete clavata Infection in Immunosuppressed Patients: Systematic Review of Cases and Report of the First Oral Manifestation, Focusing on Differential Diagnosis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2385. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052385

AMA Style

Lajolo C, Rupe C, Schiavelli A, Gioco G, Metafuni E, Contaldo M, Sica S. Saprochaete clavata Infection in Immunosuppressed Patients: Systematic Review of Cases and Report of the First Oral Manifestation, Focusing on Differential Diagnosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(5):2385. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052385

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lajolo, Carlo; Rupe, Cosimo; Schiavelli, Anna; Gioco, Gioele; Metafuni, Elisabetta; Contaldo, Maria; Sica, Simona. 2021. "Saprochaete clavata Infection in Immunosuppressed Patients: Systematic Review of Cases and Report of the First Oral Manifestation, Focusing on Differential Diagnosis" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 5: 2385. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052385

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