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Article

Analysis of Body Perception, Preworkout Meal Habits and Bone Resorption in Child Gymnasts

1
Department of Psychological, Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
2
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, 90129 Palermo, Italy
3
Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care “G. D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
4
Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adilson Marques, Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz and Diego Gomez-Baya
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042184
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
The beneficial effects of physical activity on body image perception and bone are debated among artistic gymnasts. Gymnasts seem to be at greater risk of developing body dissatisfaction, eating disorders and osteoporosis due to inadequate nutrition and attention to the appearance of the body. The objective of this work was to investigate the association between the artistic gymnast and a more favorable body image compared to their sedentary peers and if a preworkout high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 300 kcal, 88% carbohydrates, 9% protein, 3% fat) or high-protein meal (HPM; 300 kcal, 55% carbohydrates, 31% protein, 13% fat) is able to attenuate bone resorption in young rhythmic gymnasts. Twenty-eight preadolescent female gymnasts were examined. Self-esteem tests were used to analyze body image perception. Preworkout eating habits were examined by short food frequency questions (FFQ) validated for children. The biomarker of the bone resorption C-terminal telopeptide region of collagen type 1 (CTX) was measured in the urine (fasting, postmeal and postworkout). Gymnasts reported higher satisfaction with their body appearance compared to sedentary peers. Of the gymnasts, 30% did not have a preworkout meal regularly, and the timing of the consumption was variable. Bone resorption was decreased by the HCM, consumed 90 min before the training, with respect to the HPM. The study suggests that playing artistic gymnastics is associated with a positive body self-perception in a child. The variability in preworkout meal frequency and timing need attention to prevent inadequate eating habits in light of the ability of the HCM to reduce acute bone resorption. View Full-Text
Keywords: body image perception; children; aesthetic sports; pre-workout eating habits; bone resorption; physical activity body image perception; children; aesthetic sports; pre-workout eating habits; bone resorption; physical activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amato, A.; Proia, P.; Caldara, G.F.; Alongi, A.; Ferrantelli, V.; Baldassano, S. Analysis of Body Perception, Preworkout Meal Habits and Bone Resorption in Child Gymnasts. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042184

AMA Style

Amato A, Proia P, Caldara GF, Alongi A, Ferrantelli V, Baldassano S. Analysis of Body Perception, Preworkout Meal Habits and Bone Resorption in Child Gymnasts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amato, Alessandra, Patrizia Proia, Gaetano F. Caldara, Angelina Alongi, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, and Sara Baldassano. 2021. "Analysis of Body Perception, Preworkout Meal Habits and Bone Resorption in Child Gymnasts" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042184

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