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Systematic Review

Prevalence and Determinants of Immediate and Long-Term PTSD Consequences of Coronavirus-Related (CoV-1 and CoV-2) Pandemics among Healthcare Professionals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 3740, United Arab Emirates
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College of Health Sciences, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 59911, United Arab Emirates
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Center of Innovation, Technology and Education (CITE) at Sao Jose dos Campos Technology Park, Sao Jose dos Campos 12247-016, Brazil
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Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Anhembi Morumbi University-Laureate International Universities, Sao Jose dos Campos 12247-016, Brazil
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College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788, United Arab Emirates
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
H.a.T. and O.C.B. should be considered joint senior author.
Academic Editor: Lucian-Ionel Cioca
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042182
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of the Pandemic on Occupational and Environmental Safety)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rise. In order to control the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare professionals have been subjected to increased exposure to work stress. In this systematic review, we aimed at investigating the prevalence and determinants of immediate and long-term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) effects on healthcare professionals by the COVID-19 (SARS CoV-2) and SARS-2003 (SARS CoV-1) pandemics. Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to the recommendations of the Protocols for Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Only studies reporting the prevalence of PTSD (frequency, percentage) and related risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (OR)) in healthcare professionals (HCPs) during the SARS CoV-2 and SARS CoV-1 pandemics were included. The following databases were screened: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, and Health Psychosocial Instrument (HaPI). Results: Six of eight studies reported PTSD symptoms among healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in China (three), Singapore (one), India (one), and the United States of America (USA) (two), while two studies reported symptoms during the SARS-2003 pandemic in China (one) and Singapore (one). Sample sizes ranged from 263 to 5062 with a combined total of 10,074 participants. All of the studies self-reported the level of exposure to coronaviruses (CoV-1 and CoV-2) and severity of PTSD. Seven studies reported the prevalence of immediate PTSD and determinants, while one study reported delayed-onset PTSD (3 years after CoV-1 pandemic). Determinants of immediate PTSD were reported for the CoV-2 pandemic, while those for long-term PTSD were reported for the CoV-1 pandemic. Conclusions: A comprehensive understanding of the prevalence and determinants of immediate or long-term pandemic PTSD for healthcare workers can improve prevention, diagnosis, and management. Rigorous research measuring the prevalence of PTSD and its associated risk factors (adjusted OR) for the CoV-2 pandemic are envisaged. Although strategies to resolve immediate PTSD are key, long-term PTSD must not be overlooked. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; stress disorders; immediate and long-term PTSD; health personnel; risk factors; odds ratio coronavirus; stress disorders; immediate and long-term PTSD; health personnel; risk factors; odds ratio
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MDPI and ACS Style

al Falasi, B.; al Mazrouei, M.; al Ali, M.; al Dhamani, M.; al Ali, A.; al Kindi, M.; Dalkilinc, M.; al Qubaisi, M.; Campos, L.A.; al Tunaiji, H.; Baltatu, O.C. Prevalence and Determinants of Immediate and Long-Term PTSD Consequences of Coronavirus-Related (CoV-1 and CoV-2) Pandemics among Healthcare Professionals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2182. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042182

AMA Style

al Falasi B, al Mazrouei M, al Ali M, al Dhamani M, al Ali A, al Kindi M, Dalkilinc M, al Qubaisi M, Campos LA, al Tunaiji H, Baltatu OC. Prevalence and Determinants of Immediate and Long-Term PTSD Consequences of Coronavirus-Related (CoV-1 and CoV-2) Pandemics among Healthcare Professionals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):2182. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042182

Chicago/Turabian Style

al Falasi, Buthaina, Mouza al Mazrouei, Mai al Ali, Maithah al Dhamani, Aisha al Ali, Mariam al Kindi, Murat Dalkilinc, Mai al Qubaisi, Luciana A. Campos, Hashel al Tunaiji, and Ovidiu C. Baltatu 2021. "Prevalence and Determinants of Immediate and Long-Term PTSD Consequences of Coronavirus-Related (CoV-1 and CoV-2) Pandemics among Healthcare Professionals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 2182. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042182

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