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Particulate Air Pollution and Risk of Neuropsychiatric Outcomes. What We Breathe, Swallow, and Put on Our Skin Matters

1
College of Health, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
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Universidad del Valle de México, Mexico City 14370, Mexico
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Department of Neurology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
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Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry 605006, India
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Interdisciplinary Statistical Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108, India
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Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA
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Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111568
Received: 4 October 2021 / Revised: 29 October 2021 / Accepted: 30 October 2021 / Published: 3 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Air Pollution and Occupational Exposure)
We appraise newly accumulated evidence of the impact of particle pollution on the brain, the portals of entry, the neural damage mechanisms, and ultimately the neurological and psychiatric outcomes statistically associated with exposures. PM pollution comes from natural and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, engineered nanoparticles (NP ≤ 100 nm), wildfires, and wood burning. We are all constantly exposed during normal daily activities to some level of particle pollution of various sizes—PM2.5 (≤2.5 µm), ultrafine PM (UFP ≤ 100 nm), or NPs. Inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption are key portals of entry. Selected literature provides context for the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) ambient air quality standards, the conclusions of an Independent Particulate Matter Review Panel, the importance of internal combustion emissions, and evidence suggesting UFPs/NPs cross biological barriers and reach the brain. NPs produce oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, neurovascular unit, mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and DNA damage, protein aggregation and misfolding, and other effects. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations at or below current US standards can increase the risk for TIAs, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, cognitive deficits, dementia, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Residing in a highly polluted megacity is associated with Alzheimer neuropathology hallmarks in 99.5% of residents between 11 months and ≤40 y. PD risk and aggravation are linked to air pollution and exposure to diesel exhaust increases ALS risk. Overall, the literature supports that particle pollution contributes to targeted neurological and psychiatric outcomes and highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the marked differences in pollution profiles inducing neural damage. Factors such as emission source intensity, genetics, nutrition, comorbidities, and others also play a role. PM2.5 is a threat for neurological and psychiatric diseases. Thus, future research should address specifically the potential role of UFPs/NPs in inducing neural damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; quadruple aberrant proteins; particulate matter; air pollution; nanoparticles; pollution neurology and psychiatric outcomes; ultrafine particles; internal combustion emissions; wildfires Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; quadruple aberrant proteins; particulate matter; air pollution; nanoparticles; pollution neurology and psychiatric outcomes; ultrafine particles; internal combustion emissions; wildfires
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MDPI and ACS Style

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L.; Stommel, E.W.; Rajkumar, R.P.; Mukherjee, P.S.; Ayala, A. Particulate Air Pollution and Risk of Neuropsychiatric Outcomes. What We Breathe, Swallow, and Put on Our Skin Matters. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111568

AMA Style

Calderón-Garcidueñas L, Stommel EW, Rajkumar RP, Mukherjee PS, Ayala A. Particulate Air Pollution and Risk of Neuropsychiatric Outcomes. What We Breathe, Swallow, and Put on Our Skin Matters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian, Elijah W. Stommel, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Partha S. Mukherjee, and Alberto Ayala. 2021. "Particulate Air Pollution and Risk of Neuropsychiatric Outcomes. What We Breathe, Swallow, and Put on Our Skin Matters" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11568. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111568

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