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Article

Risk Factors for Positivity to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Backyard Production Systems Animals from Metropolitana Region, Chile: A Threat to Public Health?

1
Departamento de Medicina Preventiva Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8820808, Chile
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Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8820808, Chile
3
Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Ambientales, Universidad del Alba, Santiago 8370007, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Beate Conrady
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010730
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
In the Metropolitana region of Chile there are 3836 backyard production systems (BPS), characterized as small-scale systems. They act as a source of zoonotic pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), whose prevalence in BPS has not been fully described. The objective of this study was to determine the positivity for both agents in BPS and to establish the risk factors related to their presence. In each BPS, an epidemiological survey was undertaken, and stool samples were collected to detect these pathogens via bacteriological culture and conventional PCR techniques. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression models were applied to establish the risk factors associated with their presence. BPS positivity rates of 11.76% for STEC and 4.7% for S. enterica were observed. The systems showed poor welfare standards and a lack of biosecurity measures. The risk factor analysis concluded that the Gini–Simpson index (p = 0.030; OR = 1.717) and the presence of neighboring intensive poultry or swine production systems (p = 0.019; OR = 20.645) act as factors that increased the risk of positivity with respect to STEC. In the case of S. enterica, exchanging embryonated eggs (p = 0.021; OR = 39) and the presence of debeaked chickens (p = 0.001; OR = 156) were determined as factors that increased the risk of positivity for this agent. For positivity with respect to both pathogens, the Gini–Simpson index (p = 0.030; OR = 1.544) and being INDAP/PRODESAL users (p = 0.023; OR = 15.026) were determined as factors that increased the risk, whereas the type of confinement (p = 0.002; OR = 0.019) decreased it. Epidemiological surveillance of these neglected populations is lacking, highlighting the fact that STEC and S. enterica maintenance on BPS represents a potential threat to public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: backyard production systems; STEC; Salmonella enterica; risk factors; public health; One Health; zoonosis backyard production systems; STEC; Salmonella enterica; risk factors; public health; One Health; zoonosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Pavez-Muñoz, E.; Fernández-Sanhueza, B.; Urzúa-Encina, C.; Galarce, N.; Alegría-Morán, R. Risk Factors for Positivity to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Backyard Production Systems Animals from Metropolitana Region, Chile: A Threat to Public Health? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 10730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010730

AMA Style

Pavez-Muñoz E, Fernández-Sanhueza B, Urzúa-Encina C, Galarce N, Alegría-Morán R. Risk Factors for Positivity to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Backyard Production Systems Animals from Metropolitana Region, Chile: A Threat to Public Health? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20):10730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavez-Muñoz, Erika, Bastián Fernández-Sanhueza, Constanza Urzúa-Encina, Nicolás Galarce, and Raúl Alegría-Morán. 2021. "Risk Factors for Positivity to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Backyard Production Systems Animals from Metropolitana Region, Chile: A Threat to Public Health?" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 20: 10730. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010730

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