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Special Issue "Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 October 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Beate Conrady
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Grønnegaardsvej 8, Frederiksberg Campus, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Interests: animal health economics; epidemiology; statistical analysis; modelling of animal disease; zoonosis; veterinary public health; public health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Zoonoses are infections that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans, such as through the consumption of contaminated food or direct contact. Data analysis of the epidemiological situation of zoonotic diseases, as well as their respective mitigation strategies (such as monitoring, surveillance, control and/or eradication programs, vaccination) is essential to identify the most common sources of infection and to reduce the prevalence of such diseases. Much still needs to be learned about the occurrence of zoonoses, including their potential for spread, impact on production efficiency, obstacles to intracommunity and worldwide trade in animal products, and the effects of associated mitigation activities, which in many cases fall between both the animal and human sectors, on zoonoses’ prevalence reduction.

This Special Issue seeks research papers including, but not limited to, original research, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on various aspects of zoonoses, including the (i) epidemiologic aspects, such as risk factors for their occurrence, prevalence estimation, modelling of disease spread; (ii) strategies for controlling these pathogens; the role of (veterinary) public health preparedness activities to control outbreaks; and other mitigation activities (such as vaccination programs); and (iii) economic assessments of zoonotic outbreaks and mitigation activities at farm, regional, national, and global levels.

We would particularly encourage the submission of interdisciplinary work (particularly from the veterinary and human research areas) and multicountry collaborative research.

Dr. Beate Conrady
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonosis
  • infectious disease epidemiology
  • economic impact of zoonoses and/or control strategies
  • mitigation activities against zoonoses
  • prevalence estimations
  • source of infections

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Risk Factors for Positivity to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Backyard Production Systems Animals from Metropolitana Region, Chile: A Threat to Public Health?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10730; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010730 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
In the Metropolitana region of Chile there are 3836 backyard production systems (BPS), characterized as small-scale systems. They act as a source of zoonotic pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), whose prevalence in BPS has not been fully [...] Read more.
In the Metropolitana region of Chile there are 3836 backyard production systems (BPS), characterized as small-scale systems. They act as a source of zoonotic pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), whose prevalence in BPS has not been fully described. The objective of this study was to determine the positivity for both agents in BPS and to establish the risk factors related to their presence. In each BPS, an epidemiological survey was undertaken, and stool samples were collected to detect these pathogens via bacteriological culture and conventional PCR techniques. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression models were applied to establish the risk factors associated with their presence. BPS positivity rates of 11.76% for STEC and 4.7% for S. enterica were observed. The systems showed poor welfare standards and a lack of biosecurity measures. The risk factor analysis concluded that the Gini–Simpson index (p = 0.030; OR = 1.717) and the presence of neighboring intensive poultry or swine production systems (p = 0.019; OR = 20.645) act as factors that increased the risk of positivity with respect to STEC. In the case of S. enterica, exchanging embryonated eggs (p = 0.021; OR = 39) and the presence of debeaked chickens (p = 0.001; OR = 156) were determined as factors that increased the risk of positivity for this agent. For positivity with respect to both pathogens, the Gini–Simpson index (p = 0.030; OR = 1.544) and being INDAP/PRODESAL users (p = 0.023; OR = 15.026) were determined as factors that increased the risk, whereas the type of confinement (p = 0.002; OR = 0.019) decreased it. Epidemiological surveillance of these neglected populations is lacking, highlighting the fact that STEC and S. enterica maintenance on BPS represents a potential threat to public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
Article
Estimation of the Impact of Foodborne Salmonellosis on Consumer Well-Being in Hungary
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910131 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 324
Abstract
In Hungary, salmonellosis is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses. According to our estimation, based on a representative consumer survey with 1001 respondents, the annual number of salmonellosis cases exceeded 90,000, which was 18 times higher than the officially reported data. Salmonellosis [...] Read more.
In Hungary, salmonellosis is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses. According to our estimation, based on a representative consumer survey with 1001 respondents, the annual number of salmonellosis cases exceeded 90,000, which was 18 times higher than the officially reported data. Salmonellosis infections impose significant direct and indirect costs to the health care system, to companies (as employers) and to households. This study focused on the cost to households by analysing well-being losses due to Salmonella infections, for which the WTP (willingness-to-pay) method was used. WTP measures the cost that an individual would pay to avoid an undesirable harm or health outcome. For estimating WTP, 456 respondents gave quantifiable answers. The average WTP to avoid salmonellosis was 86.3 EUR. Based on this data, the total consumer well-being loss could be estimated to be about 7.87 million EUR per year in Hungary. These results indicate that consumers’ well-being losses alone would necessitate further interventions for Salmonella reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
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Article
Snakebites in Rural Areas of Brazil by Race: Indigenous the Most Exposed Group
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179365 - 05 Sep 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Animal stings are environmental hazards that threaten millions annually and cause a significant socioeconomic impact. Snakebite envenoming affects 2.7 million people globally every year, mostly the poorest and rural communities, with approximately 27,000 annual cases in Brazil. This study’s objective is to identify [...] Read more.
Animal stings are environmental hazards that threaten millions annually and cause a significant socioeconomic impact. Snakebite envenoming affects 2.7 million people globally every year, mostly the poorest and rural communities, with approximately 27,000 annual cases in Brazil. This study’s objective is to identify the most exposed racial group for snakebites in rural areas of Brazil and analyze possible differences in the outcome of an accident. A retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using a database of rural snakebite cases from Brazil’s Ministry of Health (2017). Descriptive analysis and a regression model were performed to examine the association of bad outcomes after a snakebite with several covariables. While mixed-race individuals presented the highest number of cases (61.79%), indigenous and white populations were the racial groups with the highest and lowest exposure rates (194.3 and 34.1 per 100,000 population, respectively). The fatality rate was 3.5 times higher in the indigenous population compared to the white population. In the multivariable model, the number of hours between the accident and health care received and the case classification suggested an association with a bad outcome. Snakebite is prominent in Brazil, particularly among indigenous groups. Antivenom is available in the Brazilian Health System; however, efforts need to be made for decentralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
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Article
Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatiotemporal Trend Analysis of Human Brucellosis in China, 1950–2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072382 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
The rate of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, has rapidly increased in humans brucellosis(HB) in recent years. In 1950–2018, a total of 684,380 HB cases (median 2274/year (interquartile range (IQR) 966–8325)) were reported to the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System in mainland China. The [...] Read more.
The rate of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, has rapidly increased in humans brucellosis(HB) in recent years. In 1950–2018, a total of 684,380 HB cases (median 2274/year (interquartile range (IQR) 966–8325)) were reported to the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System in mainland China. The incidence of HB peaked in 2014 (4.32/100,000), and then showed a downward trend; we predict that it will maintain a steady downward trend in 2019–2020. Since 2015, the incidence of HB has shown opposite trends in the north and south of China; rates in the north have fallen and rates in the south have increased. In 2004–2018, the most significant increases in incidence of HB were in Yunnan (IQR 0.002–0.463/100,000), Hubei (IQR 0.000–0.338/100,000), and Guangdong (IQR 0.015–0.350/100,000). The areas where HB occurs have little overlap with areas with high per capita GDP in China. The “high–high” clusters of HB are located in northeastern China (Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shanxi, and Gansu), and the “low–low” clusters of HB are located in southern China (Yunnan, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Guangxi, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Guizhou, and Hunan). In recent years, the incidence of HB in China has been controlled to some extent, but the incidence of HB has increased in southern China, and the disease has spread geographically in China from north to south. Further research is needed to address this change and to continue to explore the relationship between the incidence of HB and relevant factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
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Article
Comparing the Climatic and Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease Cases in the Upper Midwest and Northeast United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051548 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Lyme disease, recognized as one of the most important vector-borne diseases worldwide, has been increasing in incidence and spatial extend in United States. In the Northeast and Upper Midwest, Lyme disease is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. Currently, many studies have been conducted [...] Read more.
Lyme disease, recognized as one of the most important vector-borne diseases worldwide, has been increasing in incidence and spatial extend in United States. In the Northeast and Upper Midwest, Lyme disease is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. Currently, many studies have been conducted to identify factors influencing Lyme disease risk in the Northeast, however, relatively few studies focused on the Upper Midwest. In this study, we explored and compared the climatic and landscape factors that shape the spatial patterns of human Lyme cases in these two regions, using the generalized linear mixed models. Our results showed that climatic variables generally had opposite correlations with Lyme disease risk, while landscape factors usually had similar effects in these two regions. High precipitation and low temperature were correlated with high Lyme disease risk in the Upper Midwest, while with low Lyme disease risk in the Northeast. In both regions, size and fragmentation related factors of residential area showed positive correlations with Lyme disease risk. Deciduous forests and evergreen forests had opposite effects on Lyme disease risk, but the effects were consistent between two regions. In general, this study provides new insight into understanding the differences of risk factors of human Lyme disease risk in these two regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
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Communication
First Report of Clinostomum complanatum (Trematoda: Digenea) in European Perch (Perca fluviatilis) from an Italian Subalpine Lake: A Risk for Public Health?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041389 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Clinostomum complanatum, a digenean trematode of the Clinostomidae family, is a fish-borne zoonotic parasite responsible for Halzoun syndrome in humans and is transmitted through the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish. Of the total of 112 specimens of European perch ( [...] Read more.
Clinostomum complanatum, a digenean trematode of the Clinostomidae family, is a fish-borne zoonotic parasite responsible for Halzoun syndrome in humans and is transmitted through the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish. Of the total of 112 specimens of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) sampled from a subalpine lake (Lake Endine) in North Italy in 2019, 21 (18.75%) tested positive for encysted metacercariae in the fillet. This study reports the first isolation of C. complanatum in P. fluviatilis and highlights the possible zoonotic risk for consumers, since P. fluviatilis is a food fish used in the traditional local cuisine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
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Review

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Review
A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review of the Impacts of Coronavirus on Society and Culture
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020491 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Little is understood of the social and cultural effects of coronaviruses such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). This systematic review aims to synthesize existing findings (both qualitative and quantitative) that focus on [...] Read more.
Little is understood of the social and cultural effects of coronaviruses such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). This systematic review aims to synthesize existing findings (both qualitative and quantitative) that focus on the social and cultural impacts of coronaviruses in order to gain a better understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing a predetermined search strategy, we searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science to identify existing (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods) studies pertaining to the coronavirus infections and their intersection with societies and cultures. A narrative synthesis approach was applied to summarize and interpret findings of the study. Stemming from SARS outbreak in 2003, qualitative and quantitative findings (twelve adopted quantitative methods and eight exclusively used qualitative methods) were organized under five topical domains: governance, crisis communication and public knowledge, stigma and discrimination, social compliance of preventive measures, and the social experience of health workers. The selected studies suggest that current societies are not equipped for effective coronavirus response and control. This mixed-methods systematic review demonstrates that the effects of coronaviruses on a society can be debilitating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiological, Mitigation and Economic Impact of Zoonoses)
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