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Article

Primary and Secondary Health Impacts of COVID-19 among Minority Individuals in New York State

1
Department of Health Administration and Public Health, D’Youville College, Buffalo, NY 14201, USA
2
School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
3
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020683
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
In addition to the direct health impacts of COVID-19, the pandemic disrupted economic, educational, healthcare, and social systems in the US. This cross-sectional study examined the primary and secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among low-income and minority groups in New York State using the social determinants of health framework. New Yorkers were recruited to complete a web-based survey through Qualtrics. The survey took place in May and June 2020 and asked respondents about COVID-19 health impacts, risk factors, and concerns. Chi-square analysis examined the health effects experienced by race and ethnicity, and significant results were analyzed in a series of logistic regression models. Results showed disparities in the primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19. The majority of differences were reported between Hispanic and white respondents. The largest differences, in terms of magnitude, were reported between other or multiracial respondents and white respondents. Given the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 on minority populations, improved policies and programs to address impacts on lower-paying essential jobs and service positions could reduce exposure risks and improve safety for minority populations. Future research can identify the long-term health consequences of the pandemic on the social determinants of health among populations most at risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; social determinants of health; health disparities COVID-19; social determinants of health; health disparities
MDPI and ACS Style

Clay, L.A.; Rogus, S. Primary and Secondary Health Impacts of COVID-19 among Minority Individuals in New York State. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020683

AMA Style

Clay LA, Rogus S. Primary and Secondary Health Impacts of COVID-19 among Minority Individuals in New York State. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020683

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clay, Lauren A., and Stephanie Rogus. 2021. "Primary and Secondary Health Impacts of COVID-19 among Minority Individuals in New York State" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 683. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020683

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