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Dietary Intake and Supplement Use Among Saudi Residents during COVID-19 Lockdown

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Department of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Food & Agriculture Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
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Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Applied and Health Sciences, A’ Sharqiyah University, Ibra 400, Oman
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King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126435
Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 12 June 2021 / Accepted: 13 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Healthy diet and supplement use may prove as sustainable strategies to lower COVID-19 infection. Our study investigated the dietary changes before and during lockdown and observed dietary supplements (DS) use among residents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study collected data via an online electronic survey questionnaire among males (N = 921) and females (N = 1044) residing in Saudi Arabia, 15 years of age and above. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of males (before vs. during lockdown) having improved changes in dietary habit (68.6% vs. 65.8%; p = 0.004), which was similar in female participants (69 vs. 73.4% vs. 69%; p < 0.001). The frequency of multivitamin users among COVID-19 participants was significantly lower than non-users (44.4 vs. 55.6; p < 0.003). Male respondents within 26–35 years of age were more likely to use multivitamin supplements than females (30.1 vs. 22.6%; p < 0.05) of same age group. Predictors for DS use were increased age group, income, education level and COVID-19 status. In conclusion, an increase in unhealthy diet behavior was observed among Saudi males and females during the pandemic lockdown and the predictors of DS use included increased age, income, education level and COVID-19 status. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet behavior; dietary supplements; COVID-19; income; education; multivitamin; Saudi Arabia diet behavior; dietary supplements; COVID-19; income; education; multivitamin; Saudi Arabia
MDPI and ACS Style

Alfawaz, H.A.; Khan, N.; Aljumah, G.A.; Hussain, S.D.; Al-Daghri, N.M. Dietary Intake and Supplement Use Among Saudi Residents during COVID-19 Lockdown. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126435

AMA Style

Alfawaz HA, Khan N, Aljumah GA, Hussain SD, Al-Daghri NM. Dietary Intake and Supplement Use Among Saudi Residents during COVID-19 Lockdown. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfawaz, Hanan A., Nasiruddin Khan, Ghadah A. Aljumah, Syed D. Hussain, and Nasser M. Al-Daghri 2021. "Dietary Intake and Supplement Use Among Saudi Residents during COVID-19 Lockdown" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126435

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