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Article

Comprehensive Analysis of Risk Factors for Periodontitis Focusing on the Saliva Microbiome and Polymorphism

1
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
2
Department of Epidemiology for Community Health and Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
3
Public Health Informatics Unit, Department of Integrated Health Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 461-8673, Japan
4
Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City 230-0045, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Florence Carrouel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126430
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
Few studies have exhaustively assessed relationships among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to assess associations simultaneously among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. We used propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio to select subjects, and then 22 individuals (mean age ± standard deviation, 60.7 ± 9.9 years) were analyzed. After saliva collection, V3-4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to investigate microbiome composition, alpha diversity (Shannon index, Simpson index, Chao1, and abundance-based coverage estimator) and beta diversity using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances. A total of 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to periodontitis were identified. The frequencies of SNPs were collected from Genome-Wide Association Study data. The PCoA of unweighted UniFrac distance showed a significant difference between periodontitis and control groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in alpha diversity and PCoA of weighted UniFrac distance (p > 0.05). Two families (Lactobacillaceae and Desulfobulbaceae) and one species (Porphyromonas gingivalis) were observed only in the periodontitis group. No SNPs showed significant expression. These results suggest that periodontitis was related to the presence of P. gingivalis and the families Lactobacillaceae and Desulfobulbaceae but not SNPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontitis; microbiota; single-nucleotide polymorphisms periodontitis; microbiota; single-nucleotide polymorphisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toyama, N.; Ekuni, D.; Matsui, D.; Koyama, T.; Nakatochi, M.; Momozawa, Y.; Kubo, M.; Morita, M. Comprehensive Analysis of Risk Factors for Periodontitis Focusing on the Saliva Microbiome and Polymorphism. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126430

AMA Style

Toyama N, Ekuni D, Matsui D, Koyama T, Nakatochi M, Momozawa Y, Kubo M, Morita M. Comprehensive Analysis of Risk Factors for Periodontitis Focusing on the Saliva Microbiome and Polymorphism. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toyama, Naoki, Daisuke Ekuni, Daisuke Matsui, Teruhide Koyama, Masahiro Nakatochi, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, and Manabu Morita. 2021. "Comprehensive Analysis of Risk Factors for Periodontitis Focusing on the Saliva Microbiome and Polymorphism" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6430. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126430

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