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Special Issue "Oral Microbiota and Oral Health"

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Florence Carrouel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fundamental and Clinical Biological Sciences, Systemic Healthcare Laboratory EA 4129, University of Lyon, 69007 Lyon, France
Interests: microbiology; infectiology; molecular biology; nanoparticles; cosmetics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The oral microbiota is a key factor in oral health. It is well established that dysbiosis of the oral microbiota results in the apparition of oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis. One of the essential tasks in oral health is to maintain oral symbiosis in order to anticipate the global burden of diseases and the associated costs of caries and periodontal diseases. The maintenance of a symbiotic microbiota that passes through the control of dental plaque is a priority. Therefore, it is necessary to control dental plaque as a research priority. Thus, the beneficial effects of the microbiome, the importance of balance, the role of host factors in dysbiosis, and the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to maintain the balance of the oral microbiota constitute the essential framework of this Special Issue.

Dr. Florence Carrouel
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • periodontitis
  • caries
  • oral health
  • microbiota

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comprehensive Analysis of Risk Factors for Periodontitis Focusing on the Saliva Microbiome and Polymorphism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126430 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
Few studies have exhaustively assessed relationships among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to assess associations simultaneously among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. We used propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio to select subjects, and then [...] Read more.
Few studies have exhaustively assessed relationships among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to assess associations simultaneously among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. We used propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio to select subjects, and then 22 individuals (mean age ± standard deviation, 60.7 ± 9.9 years) were analyzed. After saliva collection, V3-4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to investigate microbiome composition, alpha diversity (Shannon index, Simpson index, Chao1, and abundance-based coverage estimator) and beta diversity using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances. A total of 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to periodontitis were identified. The frequencies of SNPs were collected from Genome-Wide Association Study data. The PCoA of unweighted UniFrac distance showed a significant difference between periodontitis and control groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in alpha diversity and PCoA of weighted UniFrac distance (p > 0.05). Two families (Lactobacillaceae and Desulfobulbaceae) and one species (Porphyromonas gingivalis) were observed only in the periodontitis group. No SNPs showed significant expression. These results suggest that periodontitis was related to the presence of P. gingivalis and the families Lactobacillaceae and Desulfobulbaceae but not SNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
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Article
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Self-Reported Gingival Bleeding: A Multicenter Study in France
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228563 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
Gingival bleeding (GB) is a common sign of gingival inflammation which indicates the presence of periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional multicenter survey aimed to assess the prevalence of self-reported gingival bleeding (SRGB) in French adults and identify the main associated factors. A questionnaire-based interview [...] Read more.
Gingival bleeding (GB) is a common sign of gingival inflammation which indicates the presence of periodontal diseases. This cross-sectional multicenter survey aimed to assess the prevalence of self-reported gingival bleeding (SRGB) in French adults and identify the main associated factors. A questionnaire-based interview was randomly proposed to 794 individuals in four French cities (Nancy, Montpellier, Paris, and Rennes). Subjects were recruited in preventive medicine centers (50%), railway stations, and malls (50%). The questionnaire comprised 25 items: SRGB characteristics, socioeconomic variables, oral hygiene habits, use of drugs, and anxiety level. The overall prevalence of SRGB was 63.2% [59.8%; 66.6%], with 58.7% bleeding after toothbrushing and 4.5% spontaneous bleeding. Males reported significantly lower SRGB prevalence than females (p = 0.04). The distribution of SRGB frequency was inversely proportional to age (p < 0.0001). No association between drug use and SRGB was found. The people interviewed in the preventive medicine centers reported the highest frequency of SRGB (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate logistic model, SRGB was significantly related to occupation, smoking status, brushing frequency, and anxiety level. In conclusion, SRGB was prevalent in more than half of the sample and was mainly associated with age, toothbrushing frequency, and anxiety level. Thus, providing information to patients about the importance of this oral manifestation may play an important role in preventing periodontal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
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Article
Relations of Psychosocial Factors and Cortisol with Periodontal and Bacterial Parameters: A Prospective Clinical Study in 30 Patients with Periodontitis Before and After Non-Surgical Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207651 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
(1) Background: The progression of periodontitis, induced by polymicrobial dysbiosis, can be modified by systemic or environmental factors such as stress or anxiety affecting host response. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential associations between psychosocial factors scores or salivary [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The progression of periodontitis, induced by polymicrobial dysbiosis, can be modified by systemic or environmental factors such as stress or anxiety affecting host response. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential associations between psychosocial factors scores or salivary cortisol levels with clinical periodontal parameters and bacterial environment in patients with periodontitis; (2) Methods: Subgingival microbiota was collected in two pathological and one healthy sites from thirty diseased patients (before/after scaling and root planing (SRP)) and from one healthy site from thirty control patients. Usual clinical periodontal parameters were recorded, and a saliva sample was harvested. Patients completed stress and anxiety self-assessment questionnaires. Cortisol concentrations were determined by ELISA and bacteria were identified by PCR; (3) Results: No correlation between salivary cortisol and the stress-anxiety self-declared was found (p > 0.05), but high concentrations of this molecule were associated positively and linearly with periodontal pocket depth (p = 0.04). It appeared that certain psychosocial stressors are associated with a modulation of the bacterial colonization of pockets of diseased group (before/after SRP), notably concerning Tannerella forsythia (p = 0.02), Porphyromonas gingivalis (p = 0.03), Fusobacterium nucleatum (p = 0.049) and Campylobacter rectus (p = 0.01). (4) Conclusion: This study reveals associations between bacteria colonization and psychosocial parameters in periodontitis that needs to be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
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Article
Perception of Gingival Bleeding by People and Healthcare Professionals: A Multicentre Study in an Adult French Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165982 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Gingival bleeding (GB) is a common sign of gingival inflammation, which indicates the presence of periodontal diseases. This study aimed to describe the perception of French adults about their self-reported GB and answers of healthcare professionals regarding the GB reported by these interviewees. [...] Read more.
Gingival bleeding (GB) is a common sign of gingival inflammation, which indicates the presence of periodontal diseases. This study aimed to describe the perception of French adults about their self-reported GB and answers of healthcare professionals regarding the GB reported by these interviewees. A questionnaire administered by one investigator in each of three public settings of four cities in France from September 2016 to November 2017. Among 794 adults interviewed, 502 (63.2%) reported a GB. Among them, 414 (82.5%) believed that GB is benign, and 309 (61.6%) declared one or more responses. The three main responses were to use mouthwash (29.3%), to change to a soft-bristle toothbrush (20.1%) and to modify the brushing technique (19.3%). Almost half (49.0%) questioned at least one healthcare professional concerning their GB: a dentist (43.0%), a physician (14.1%), and a pharmacist (8.0%). The main response of each healthcare professional was: for dentists: a “prescription of mouthwash”, for physicians to say “gingival bleeding is not serious”; and for pharmacists: “to sell a mouthwash”. Most of the participants considered their GB as benign and had inappropriate responses, which indicates their lack of knowledge regarding periodontal health. The same conclusions can be drawn for healthcare professionals, as reported by interviewees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
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Review

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Review
Periodontal Conditions and Pathogens Associated with Pre-Eclampsia: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137194 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
Background: Pre-eclampsia, the second most frequent direct source of maternal mortality, is a multisystem gestational disorder characterized by proteinuria and maternal hypertension after the 20th gestational week. Although the causes of pre-eclampsia are still discussed, research has suggested that the placenta has a [...] Read more.
Background: Pre-eclampsia, the second most frequent direct source of maternal mortality, is a multisystem gestational disorder characterized by proteinuria and maternal hypertension after the 20th gestational week. Although the causes of pre-eclampsia are still discussed, research has suggested that the placenta has a central place in the pathogenesis of this disease. Moreover, current surveys indicated that periodontal disorders observed during the pregnancy and more particularly, periodontal pathogens could be link to the risk of pre-eclampsia. Objectives: This article aims to review recent studies focusing on periodontal conditions and pathogens associated with pre-eclampsia. Methods: The process followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Results: Metabolic conditions, immunological changes, fluctuating progesterone and estrogen levels of the pregnant woman induce a dysbiosis of the oral microbiota and contribute to increase inflammation of periodontal tissues. Periodontal pathogens could diffuse through the bloodstream inducing a placenta inflammatory response as well as inflammatory molecules produced in response to periodontopathogens could migrate through the bloodstream leading to a placenta inflammatory response. Also, periodontopathogens can colonize the vaginal microbiota through the gastrointestinal tract or during oro-genital contacts. Conclusion: A cumulative bi-directional relationship between periodontal conditions, pathogens and the pre-eclampsia exists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Analysis the Link between Periodontal Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179312 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The hypothesis of an infectious connection from the oro-pharyngeal sphere to the brain underlines the interest in analyzing the link between periodontal disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the link between Alzheimer’s disease and periodontal disease [...] Read more.
The hypothesis of an infectious connection from the oro-pharyngeal sphere to the brain underlines the interest in analyzing the link between periodontal disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the link between Alzheimer’s disease and periodontal disease in patients aged 65 and over. Databases (PubMed (MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library, and Embase) were analyzed for relevant references up to 21 June 2021. The authors independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The quality of included studies was checked using the National Institutes of Health’s quality assessment tools. Five studies were included. The selected studies described in their results an increase in F. nucleatum in Alzheimer’s disease patients (adjusted p = 0.02), and its incidence was linked to C. rectus and P. gingivalis (adjusted HR = 1.22 (1.04–1.43), p = 0.012) as well as A. naeslundii (crude HR = 2.0 (1.1–3.8)). The presence of periodontitis at baseline was associated with a six-fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline over a 6-month follow-up period (ADAS-Cog mean change = 2.9 ± 6.6). The current review suggests an association between periodontal disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The treatment of periodontal disease could be a way to explore Alzheimer’s disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiota and Oral Health)
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