Next Article in Journal
Potential for Mycorrhizae-Assisted Phytoremediation of Phosphorus for Improved Water Quality
Next Article in Special Issue
Aquatic Physical Literacy: The Effectiveness of Applied Pedagogy on Parents’ and Children’s Perceptions of Aquatic Motor Competence
Previous Article in Journal
The Lung Health Ambassador Program: A Community-Engagement Initiative Focusing on Pulmonary-Related Health Issues and Disparities Regarding Tobacco Use
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design and Validation of the Scale to Measure Aquatic Competence in Children (SMACC)
Article

Outsourcing Swimming Education—Experiences and Challenges

Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, 0863 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010006
Received: 8 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 20 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
In Norway, swimming and lifesaving education (swimming education) is an obligatory part of physical education, with explicit learning aims after grade four. After recent reports of Norwegian pupils achieving low scores in swimming abilities, the Government has outlined strategies for improving swimming education. There is a notable trend toward using external providers in delivering swimming education. This article examines the outsourcing of swimming education in Norwegian primary schools. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with school leaders, physical education teachers and swimming instructors involved in outsourcing arrangements. The outsourcing was organized through private providers, municipalities, or local swimming clubs. Data were analyzed thematically and separated into highlighted areas of outsourcing practices. The results showed that outsourcing may be a solution for schools that lack staff with swimming experience and knowledge. It also indicates that teacher courses, professional development through collaboration, and strategies for measuring quality would improve swimming education. View Full-Text
Keywords: external providers; physical education; swimming abilities; elementary school; pedagogy external providers; physical education; swimming abilities; elementary school; pedagogy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Olstad, B.H.; Berg, P.R.; Kjendlie, P.-L. Outsourcing Swimming Education—Experiences and Challenges. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010006

AMA Style

Olstad BH, Berg PR, Kjendlie P-L. Outsourcing Swimming Education—Experiences and Challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):6. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olstad, Bjørn H., Pernille R. Berg, and Per-Ludvik Kjendlie. 2021. "Outsourcing Swimming Education—Experiences and Challenges" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 1: 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010006

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop