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Open AccessArticle

Is the Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in the Nordic Countries Caused by Use of Mobile Phones?

1
The Environment and Cancer Research Foundation, Studievägen 35, SE 702 17 Örebro, Sweden
2
School of Business and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology, SOC353 Ehitajate Tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239129
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Thyroid)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) categorized in 2011 radiofrequency (RF) as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B. During use of the handheld wireless phone, especially the smartphone, the thyroid gland is a target organ. During the 21st century, the incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries. We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study trends from 1970 to 2017. During that time period, the incidence increased statistically significantly in women with average annual percentage change (AAPC) +2.13%, 95% confidence interval (CI) +1.43, +2.83%. The increase was especially pronounced during 2010–2017 with annual percentage change (APC) +9.65%, 95% CI +6.68, +12.71%. In men, AAPC increased during 1970–2017 with +1.49%, 95% CI +0.71, +2.28%. Highest increase was found for the time period 2001–2017 with APC +5.26%, 95% CI +4.05, +6.49%. Similar results were found for all Nordic countries based on NORDCAN 1970–2016 with APC +5.83%, 95% CI +4.56, +7.12 in women from 2006 to 2016 and APC + 5.48%, 95% CI +3.92, +7.06% in men from 2005 to 2016. According to the Swedish Cancer Register, the increasing incidence was similar for tumors ≤4 cm as for tumors >4 cm, indicating that the increase cannot be explained by overdiagnosis. These results are in agreement with recent results on increased thyroid cancer risk associated with the use of mobile phones. We postulate that RF radiation is a causative factor for the increasing thyroid cancer incidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile phone; cordless phone; thyroid cancer; Swedish Cancer Register; NORDCAN; radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF; ionizing radiation; incidence; Nordic countries mobile phone; cordless phone; thyroid cancer; Swedish Cancer Register; NORDCAN; radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF; ionizing radiation; incidence; Nordic countries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carlberg, M.; Koppel, T.; Hedendahl, L.K.; Hardell, L. Is the Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in the Nordic Countries Caused by Use of Mobile Phones? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9129. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239129

AMA Style

Carlberg M, Koppel T, Hedendahl LK, Hardell L. Is the Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in the Nordic Countries Caused by Use of Mobile Phones? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):9129. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239129

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carlberg, Michael; Koppel, Tarmo; Hedendahl, Lena K.; Hardell, Lennart. 2020. "Is the Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in the Nordic Countries Caused by Use of Mobile Phones?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 9129. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239129

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