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Article

Sociodemographic and Built Environment Associates of Travel to School by Car among New Zealand Adolescents: Meta-Analysis

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School of Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Active Living Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Centre for Sustainability, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
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Human Potential Centre, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Transport Study Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK
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Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL (University College London), 1–19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Pacific Health Research Centre, School of Public Health & Interdisciplinary Studies, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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School of Nursing, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239138
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 3 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
Travelling to school by car diminishes opportunities for physical activity and contributes to traffic congestion and associated noise and air pollution. This meta-analysis examined sociodemographic characteristics and built environment associates of travelling to school by car compared to using active transport among New Zealand (NZ) adolescents. Four NZ studies (2163 adolescents) provided data on participants’ mode of travel to school, individual and school sociodemographic characteristics, distance to school and home-neighbourhood built-environment features. A one-step meta-analysis using individual participant data was performed in SAS. A final multivariable model was developed using stepwise logistic regression. Overall, 60.6% of participants travelled to school by car. When compared with active transport, travelling to school by car was positively associated with distance to school. Participants residing in neighbourhoods with high intersection density and attending medium deprivation schools were less likely to travel to school by car compared with their counterparts. Distance to school, school level deprivation and low home neighbourhood intersection density are associated with higher likelihood of car travel to school compared with active transport among NZ adolescents. Comprehensive interventions focusing on both social and built environment factors are needed to reduce car travel to school. View Full-Text
Keywords: transport; school; driving; built environment; adolescents; meta-analysis transport; school; driving; built environment; adolescents; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mandic, S.; Ikeda, E.; Stewart, T.; Garrett, N.; Hopkins, D.; Mindell, J.S.; Tautolo, E.S.; Smith, M. Sociodemographic and Built Environment Associates of Travel to School by Car among New Zealand Adolescents: Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239138

AMA Style

Mandic S, Ikeda E, Stewart T, Garrett N, Hopkins D, Mindell JS, Tautolo ES, Smith M. Sociodemographic and Built Environment Associates of Travel to School by Car among New Zealand Adolescents: Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):9138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239138

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mandic, Sandra, Erika Ikeda, Tom Stewart, Nicholas Garrett, Debbie Hopkins, Jennifer S. Mindell, El S. Tautolo, and Melody Smith. 2020. "Sociodemographic and Built Environment Associates of Travel to School by Car among New Zealand Adolescents: Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 23: 9138. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239138

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