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Article

The Potential Health Risk Associated with Edible Vegetables Grown on Cr(VI) Polluted Soils

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Department of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
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Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
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Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, College of Science Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA 003, The Science Campus, Roodepoort 1709, Johannesburg, South Africa
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Department of Chemistry, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
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Institute for Development of Energy for African Sustainability, College of Science, Engineering and Technology University of South Africa, 28 Pioneer Ave, Florida Park, Roodepoort 1709, Johannesburg, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020470
Received: 2 November 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
This study reports on the assessment of the growth potential of five edible vegetables, which were grown in Cr(VI) spiked soils. The vegetable plants that were used in this study were Vigna angularis, Cicer arietinum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus dubius Thell and Phaseolus vulgaris. Dried ground samples from roots, stems and leaves were analysed for various oxidation states of Cr. The daily intake of chromium, hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) methods were employed to assess the potential human health risks posed by these Cr oxidation states through vegetable consumption. The results showed that Vigna angularis was the only vegetable that germinated in highly concentrated Cr(VI) in the simulated soil (456 mg/kg). The highest total chromium (ChT) bioaccumulated in the roots was found in Phaseolus vulgaris at 0.8. The highest ChT translocation factor in the stem was that of Cicer arietinum and Vigna angularis at 0.30. The same plants translocated the highest ChT to the leaf at 0.7. A child or an adult consuming such contaminated Cicer arietinum vegetables were likely to take in between 508 and 785 mg/day of ChT, which are above the World Health Organisation guidelines of 220 and 340 mg/day, respectively. The highest HQ was found in Cicer arietinum at 8.7 and 13.4 for adults and children, respectively. The same species of plants also had high HI at 17.4 and 27.2 for adults and children, respectively. This indicated that consumers of the edible vegetables grown in Cr(VI) rich soils may be exposed to health risks, and the children were more likely to be vulnerable to these adverse effects than the adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioaccumulation; edible vegetables; hazard quotient; health index; speciation bioaccumulation; edible vegetables; hazard quotient; health index; speciation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oruko Ongon’g, R.; Edokpayi, J.N.; Msagati, T.A.M.; Tavengwa, N.T.; Ijoma, G.N.; Odiyo, J.O. The Potential Health Risk Associated with Edible Vegetables Grown on Cr(VI) Polluted Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020470

AMA Style

Oruko Ongon’g R, Edokpayi JN, Msagati TAM, Tavengwa NT, Ijoma GN, Odiyo JO. The Potential Health Risk Associated with Edible Vegetables Grown on Cr(VI) Polluted Soils. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(2):470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oruko Ongon’g, Richard, Joshua N. Edokpayi, Titus A.M. Msagati, Nikita T. Tavengwa, Grace N. Ijoma, and John O. Odiyo 2020. "The Potential Health Risk Associated with Edible Vegetables Grown on Cr(VI) Polluted Soils" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 2: 470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020470

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