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Article

An Assessment of Annual Mortality Attributable to Ambient PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand

1
Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2
The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha Uthit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7298; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197298
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 6 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Impact Assessment)
Multiple studies indicate that PM2.5 is the most deleterious air pollutant for which there are ambient air quality standards. Daily concentrations of PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand, continuously exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Thai National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs). Bangkok has only recently begun to measure concentrations of PM2.5. To overcome this paucity of data, daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios were generated over the period 2012–2018 to interpolate missing values. Concentration-response coefficients (β values) for PM2.5 versus non-accidental, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortalities were derived from the literature. Values were also estimated and were found to be comparable to those reported in the literature for a Chinese population, but considerably lower than those reported in the literature from the United States. These findings strongly suggest that specific regional β values should be used to accurately quantify the number of premature deaths attributable to PM2.5 in Asian populations. Health burden analysis using the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) showed that PM2.5 concentration in Bangkok contributes to 4240 non-accidental, 1317 cardiopulmonary, and 370 lung cancer mortalities annually. Further analysis showed that the attainment of PM2.5 levels to the NAAQSs and WHO guideline would reduce annual premature mortality in Bangkok by 33%and 75%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios; concentration-response coefficients; health burden; health benefit; Bangkok daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios; concentration-response coefficients; health burden; health benefit; Bangkok
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fold, N.R.; Allison, M.R.; Wood, B.C.; Thao, P.T.B.; Bonnet, S.; Garivait, S.; Kamens, R.; Pengjan, S. An Assessment of Annual Mortality Attributable to Ambient PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197298

AMA Style

Fold NR, Allison MR, Wood BC, Thao PTB, Bonnet S, Garivait S, Kamens R, Pengjan S. An Assessment of Annual Mortality Attributable to Ambient PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(19):7298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197298

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fold, Nathaniel R., Mary R. Allison, Berkley C. Wood, Pham T.B. Thao, Sebastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait, Richard Kamens, and Sitthipong Pengjan. 2020. "An Assessment of Annual Mortality Attributable to Ambient PM2.5 in Bangkok, Thailand" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 19: 7298. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197298

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