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Perceived Stress, Stigma, Traumatic Stress Levels and Coping Responses amongst Residents in Training across Multiple Specialties during COVID-19 Pandemic—A Longitudinal Study

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Department of Research, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore 539747, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Residency, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Internal Medicine Residency Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Education Office, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of Psychiatry, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Infectious Diseases Residency Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Respiratory Medicine Residency Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Post-Graduate Year 1 Training Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Family Medicine Residency Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group Polyclinics, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group General Surgery Residency Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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Department of General Medicine, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore 768828, Singapore
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National Healthcare Group National Psychiatry Residency Program, Singapore 138543, Singapore
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West Region, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore 539747, Singapore
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186572
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 8 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
This study aimed to explore changes in psychological responses (perceived stress, traumatic stress, stigma, coping) over time in residents, as well as their predictors. The level of perceived stress, traumatic stress, stigma, and coping responses were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Impact of Event-Revised, Healthcare Workers Stigma Scale, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Inventory, respectively. We collected responses from 274 residents at baseline and 221 residents at 3 months follow-up (timepoint 2) from the National Healthcare Group (NHG) residency programs in Singapore. All residents reported lower perceived stress and lower perceived stigma compared to baseline. Use of avoidance coping was associated with all three psychological responses (perceived stress, traumatic stress, and stigma) across the two timepoints. Compared to baseline, specific factors associated with perceived stress and traumatic stress at timepoint 2 were living alone, less problem solving, and seeking social support. Residency programs should encourage active coping strategies (e.g., seeking social support, positive thinking, problem solving) among residents, and proactively identify residents who may be at higher risk of psychological sequelae due to circumstances that contribute to isolation. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; residency; psychological responses; healthcare workers COVID-19; residency; psychological responses; healthcare workers
MDPI and ACS Style

Chew, Q.H.; Chia, F.L.-A.; Ng, W.K.; Lee, W.C.I.; Tan, P.L.L.; Wong, C.S.; Puah, S.H.; Shelat, V.G.; Seah, E.-J.D.; Huey, C.W.T.; Phua, E.J.; Sim, K. Perceived Stress, Stigma, Traumatic Stress Levels and Coping Responses amongst Residents in Training across Multiple Specialties during COVID-19 Pandemic—A Longitudinal Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186572

AMA Style

Chew QH, Chia FL-A, Ng WK, Lee WCI, Tan PLL, Wong CS, Puah SH, Shelat VG, Seah E-JD, Huey CWT, Phua EJ, Sim K. Perceived Stress, Stigma, Traumatic Stress Levels and Coping Responses amongst Residents in Training across Multiple Specialties during COVID-19 Pandemic—A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186572

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chew, Qian H., Faith L.-A. Chia, Wee K. Ng, Wan C.I. Lee, Pei L.L. Tan, Chen S. Wong, Ser H. Puah, Vishalkumar G. Shelat, Ee-Jin D. Seah, Cheong W.T. Huey, Eng J. Phua, and Kang Sim. 2020. "Perceived Stress, Stigma, Traumatic Stress Levels and Coping Responses amongst Residents in Training across Multiple Specialties during COVID-19 Pandemic—A Longitudinal Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6572. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186572

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