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Open AccessArticle

Soil, Hand, and Body Adherence Measures across Four Beach Areas: Potential Influence on Exposure to Oil Spill Chemicals

1
Department of Built Environment, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
2
School of Social Work, University of Arkansas Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204, USA
3
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA
4
School of Public Health, University of Texas-Houston, El Paso, TX 79905, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124196
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Children's Health)
Skin adherence (SA) of soil affects exposure from soil contaminants through dermal routes via loading on the skin and through ingestion routes through hand to mouth activities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships between adherence versus child-specific and environmental factors. Two sets of soil-to-skin adherence were evaluated. The first was based on loading on hands following hand presses (Hand SA). The second was based on body rinses following one hour of play activities on the beach (Body SA). Results for 98–119 children conducted at four beach sites show that mean Hand SA was 35.7 mg/cm2 (std. dev. 41.8 mg/cm2), while Body SA based on full coverage was 352.3 mg/cm2 (std. dev. 250.4 mg/cm2). Statistically significant differences in Body SA were observed between male (419.2 mg/cm2) and female (300.4 mg/cm2) children (p < 0.05). No significant difference by sex was found for Hand SA. Other statistically different observations were that Hand SA (p < 0.05), but not Body SA, differed across the four beaches (p < 0.05). For Hand SA, this difference was associated soil size variability across the beaches. Hand and Body SA values measured during this study are recommended for use in risk assessments that evaluate beach exposures to oil spill chemicals for young children. View Full-Text
Keywords: hand adherence; body adherence; children’s exposures; beach exposures; risk of exposure to oil spill contaminants hand adherence; body adherence; children’s exposures; beach exposures; risk of exposure to oil spill contaminants
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Ferguson, A.; Kumar Dwivedi, A.; Ehindero, E.; Adelabu, F.; Rattler, K.; Perone, H.R.; Montas, L.; Mena, K.; Solo-Gabriele, H. Soil, Hand, and Body Adherence Measures across Four Beach Areas: Potential Influence on Exposure to Oil Spill Chemicals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4196.

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