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Open AccessArticle

Comparisons of Dipstick Test, Urine Protein-to-Creatine Ratio, and Total Protein Measurement for the Diagnosis of Preeclampsia

1
Department of Obstetrics, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Department of Medical Immunology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Neonatology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
4
Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
5
Cancer Immunology Group, International Centre for Cancer Vaccine Science, University of Gdansk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
6
Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Cellular Therapies, Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this study.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124195
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
Preeclampsia affects 2–5% of pregnant women and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. We aimed to extensively evaluate proteinuria in women with preeclampsia and to determine the analytical sensitivity and specificity of and the cutoff values for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) and total protein in 24 h urine samples. This study included 88 women. We used the urine dipstick test, UPCR, and total protein measurement in a 24 h urine sample. The patients were divided in gestational hypertension (GH, n = 44) and preeclampsia (PE, n = 44) groups. In the GH group, 25% (11/44) of the patients presented incidentally positive results. UPCR and total protein in 24 h urine specimens were increased in the GH group compared to the PE group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a UPCR cutoff of 30 mg/mmol as significant for preeclampsia, while the sensitivity and specificity were 89% (95% CI, 75–97) and 100% (95% CI, 87–100), respectively. In the 24 h urine protein test, sensitivity and specificity were 80% (95% CI, 61–92) and 100% (95% CI, 88–100), respectively, for the cutoff value of 0.26 g/24 h. In comparison to the other commonly used tests here considered, UPCR determination is a reliable, relatively faster, and equally accurate method for the quantitation of proteinuria, correlates well with 24 h urine protein estimations, and could be used as an alternative to the 24 h proteinuria test for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. View Full-Text
Keywords: preeclampsia; gestational hypertension; pregnancy; urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; proteinuria; 24 h urine sample preeclampsia; gestational hypertension; pregnancy; urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; proteinuria; 24 h urine sample
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Stefańska, K.; Zieliński, M.; Zamkowska, D.; Adamski, P.; Jassem-Bobowicz, J.; Piekarska, K.; Jankowiak, M.; Leszczyńska, K.; Świątkowska-Stodulska, R.; Preis, K.; Trzonkowski, P.; Marek-Trzonkowska, N. Comparisons of Dipstick Test, Urine Protein-to-Creatine Ratio, and Total Protein Measurement for the Diagnosis of Preeclampsia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4195.

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