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Article

Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea

by 1 and 2,*
1
Department of Geography, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Geography Education, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071250
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Time-Space Modeling of the Health Effects of Environment)
Since its re-emergence in 1993, the spatial patterns of malaria outbreaks in South Korea have drastically changed. It is well known that complicated interactions between humans, nature, and socio-economic factors lead to a spatial dependency of vivax malaria occurrences. This study investigates the spatial factors determining malaria occurrences in order to understand and control malaria risks in Korea. A multilevel model is applied to simultaneously analyze the variables in different spatial scales, and eigenvector spatial filtering is used to explain the spatial autocorrelation in the malaria occurrence data. The results show that housing costs, average age, rice paddy field ratio, and distance from the demilitarized zone (DMZ) are significant on the level-1 spatial scale; health budget per capita and military base area ratio are significant on the level-2 spatial scale. The results show that the spatially filtered multilevel model provides better analysis results in handling spatial issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: malaria; multilevel model; eigenvector spatial filtering malaria; multilevel model; eigenvector spatial filtering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.; Kim, Y. Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1250. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071250

AMA Style

Kim S, Kim Y. Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(7):1250. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071250

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Sehyeong, and Youngho Kim. 2019. "Spatially Filtered Multilevel Analysis on Spatial Determinants for Malaria Occurrence in Korea" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 7: 1250. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071250

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