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Article

Setting-Specific and Symptom-Specific Association between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms

by 1,*,†, 1,†, 2, 2, 1 and 2,*
1
School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510310, China
2
Institute of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease and Control, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071249
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
Few studies have focused on the potential relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and depressive symptoms. This study aimed to explore the potential association between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms and differentiate this association in setting-specific exposure and symptom-specific outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangdong province of China from September to December 2010 using a multistage sampling method to randomly sample adults aged 18 years and older. SHS exposure was defined as inhalation by non-smokers of the smoke exhaled from smokers for at least 1 day a week in the past 30 days. Depressive symptoms were measured using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The zero-inflate negative binomial regression models were used to explore the associations between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms. A total of 2771 non-smokers were included in this study, with mean age of 49.6 ± 14.0 years and 70.3% of females. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly higher in participants with SHS exposure than in those without exposure (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.51), and there were similar positive associations for SHS exposure in medical facilities (IRR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.17–1.61) and in schools (IRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.20–1.77). Notably, there was a monotonically increasing dose-response relationship between frequency of SHS exposure and depressive symptoms. When differentiating this relationship by the dimensions of depressive symptoms, there were similar dose-response relationships for cognitive-affective and somatic symptoms. When differentiating this relationship by sex, only females showed a significant dose-response relationship. Our findings suggest dose-response relationships between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms in sex-specific and symptom-specific manners. Future longitudinal studies are needed to establish the biological mechanisms of the impact of SHS exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondhand smoke; depressive symptoms; influencing factors secondhand smoke; depressive symptoms; influencing factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, X.; Huang, J.; Xia, L.; Xu, X.; Gong, X.; Xu, Y. Setting-Specific and Symptom-Specific Association between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1249. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071249

AMA Style

Ye X, Huang J, Xia L, Xu X, Gong X, Xu Y. Setting-Specific and Symptom-Specific Association between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(7):1249. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071249

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ye, Xiaohua, Jingya Huang, Liang Xia, Xiaojun Xu, Xiao Gong, and Yanjun Xu. 2019. "Setting-Specific and Symptom-Specific Association between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 7: 1249. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071249

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