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Open AccessArticle

Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, Environmental and Pregnancy-Related Determinants of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy

1
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical University of Lodz, 90-647 Lodz, Poland
3
Obstetrics, Perinatology and Gynecology Department, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
4
Department of Teaching Midwifery, Medical University of Lodz, 90-419 Lodz, Poland
5
Centre for Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, National Institute of Health, I-00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050754
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diets and Public Health)
Background: Characterization of dietary patterns represents a valid and meaningful measure of overall diet quality and nutrient intake. The study aims at evaluating the sociodemographic, lifestyle, environmental, and pregnancy-related determinants of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy. Methods: The analysis was conducted on a group of pregnant women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). During the second trimester of pregnancy, 1306 women filled in a modified version of the validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were estimated using an exploratory factor analysis. Potential dietary determinants were assessed via a questionnaire or biomarker measurements (saliva cotinine level). Results: Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterized by high consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, poultry, and low-fat dairy products, while the Western dietary pattern included high intake of refined grains, processed meat, potatoes, and very low intake of whole grains. Clear sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and pregnancy-related determinants of diet quality were established. Older age (β = 0.2; p < 0.01), higher educational level (β = 0.3; p < 0.01), and socioeconomic status (SES) (β = 0.2; p < 0.01), overweight/obesity before (β = 0.3; p < 0.01), as well as physical activity during pregnancy (β = 0.2; p = 0.01) were positive determinants of a healthier diet (increasing Prudent–Western difference in dietary pattern scores). On the other hand, parity (β = −0.2; p = 0.04) and living in small cities (β = −0.3; p = 0.02) were significantly related to a rather Western dietary pattern. Conclusions: The current study presents evidence on specific factors influencing dietary patterns. They need to be accounted for in educational programs and interventions focused on healthy diet recommendations during pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; pregnancy; sociodemographic; lifestyle; environmental; pregnancy-related factors; exploratory factor analysis dietary patterns; pregnancy; sociodemographic; lifestyle; environmental; pregnancy-related factors; exploratory factor analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Wesołowska, E.; Jankowska, A.; Trafalska, E.; Kałużny, P.; Grzesiak, M.; Dominowska, J.; Hanke, W.; Calamandrei, G.; Polańska, K. Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, Environmental and Pregnancy-Related Determinants of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 754.

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