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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1471;

Health Effects of Air Pollution in China

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Centre for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Sustainable Development Research Institute for Economy and Society of Beijing, Beijing 100081, China
Beijing Key Lab of Energy Economics and Environmental Management, Beijing 100081, China
Department of Statistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Yuanpei College, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
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Background Rapid economic and social development in China has resulted in severe air pollution and consequent adverse impacts on society. The health effects of air pollution have been widely studied. Methods Using information from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) database, we established a hierarchical linear model combining pollution and socioeconomic and psychosocial variables to examine the effects of air pollution on public health in China. Local air pollution was characterized in multiple dimensions. Results The relationship of health to its determinants greatly differed between Eastern and Central/Western China. Higher education, higher income level, better life satisfaction, and long-term marriage were significantly associated with better health status among Chinese. In addition, regional healthcare resources were positively associated with the health of residents. As indicated by the hierarchical model with health as dependent variable, in Central/Western China, longest duration of good air quality in spring/summer was positively associated with health (estimated coefficient = 0.067, standard error = 0.026), while the mean Air Quality Index (AQI) in autumn/winter was inversely associated with health (estimated coefficient = −0.082, standard error = 0.031). Good air quality in the current study is defined as daily average AQI less than 35. Conclusions Duration (in days) of acceptable air quality was particularly important for improving public health. Future policies should target increased duration of good air quality while managing air pollution by controlling or decreasing severe air pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: health effect; air pollution; hierarchical linear model health effect; air pollution; hierarchical linear model

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Liu, W.; Xu, Z.; Yang, T. Health Effects of Air Pollution in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1471.

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