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Summary Outcomes of the ODIN Project on Food Fortification for Vitamin D Deficiency Prevention

Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, T12ND89 Cork, Ireland
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112342
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Public Health)
Food-based solutions for optimal vitamin D nutrition and health through the life cycle (ODIN) was a cross-disciplinary, collaborative project, including 30 partners from 19 countries, which aimed to develop evidence-based solutions to prevent low vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 30 nmol/L) using a food-first approach. This paper provides a summary overview of some of the important ODIN outcomes and outlines some outstanding data requirements. In a study of almost 56,000 individuals, the first internationally standardised dataset of vitamin D status showed that 13% of EU residents overall, across a latitude gradient of 35° N to 69° N, had serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L and 40% were < 50 nmol/L. The risk of low vitamin D status was several-fold higher among persons of ethnic minority. However, additional data from quality bio-banked sera would be required to improve these estimates. To address the question of dietary requirements for vitamin D among under-researched life-stage and population groups, four dose-response RCTs conducted in Northern Europe showed that vitamin D3 intakes of 8 and 13 μg/day prevented 25(OH)D decreasing below 30 nmol/L in white children and adolescents and 20 and 30 μg/day, respectively, achieved ≥50 nmol/L. Among white women during pregnancy, 30 μg/day is required to prevent umbilical cord 25(OH)D, representing new-born vitamin D status, below 25 nmol/L. While 8 μg/day protected white women in Finland at the 30 nmol/L cut-off, 18 μg/day was needed by women of East African descent to prevent 25(OH)D decreasing below 30 nmol/L during wintertime. Replicate RCTs are needed in young children <5 years and in school-age children, teens and pregnant women of ethnic minority. Using a series of food production studies, food-based RCTs and dietary modelling experiments, ODIN research shows that diverse fortification strategies could safely increase population intakes and prevent low vitamin D status. Building on this solid technological platform, implementation research is now warranted to scale up interventions in real-world settings to eradicate vitamin D deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; food fortification; dietary requirements; dietary modelling; bio-fortification vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; food fortification; dietary requirements; dietary modelling; bio-fortification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kiely, M.; Cashman, K.D. Summary Outcomes of the ODIN Project on Food Fortification for Vitamin D Deficiency Prevention. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112342

AMA Style

Kiely M, Cashman KD. Summary Outcomes of the ODIN Project on Food Fortification for Vitamin D Deficiency Prevention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(11):2342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112342

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kiely, Mairead, and Kevin D. Cashman. 2018. "Summary Outcomes of the ODIN Project on Food Fortification for Vitamin D Deficiency Prevention" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 11: 2342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112342

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