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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Caregiver’s Mental Health on Early Childhood Development across Different Rural Communities in China

1
Center for Experimental Economics of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi, China
2
International Business School, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi, China
3
Rural Education Action Project, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112341
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Previous research has found that there are high rates of developmental delays among infants and toddlers in rural areas of China. Caregiver mental health problems might be one significant predictor of developmental delays among infants and toddlers, as has been found in other areas of the world. One way that the mental health of caregivers could affect early childhood development is through its effect on parenting practices. In this study, we used data from four major subpopulations of rural China to measure the correlation of caregiver mental health problems with the developmental outcomes of infants and toddlers. To do so, the study used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID III) to examine the rates of developmental delays among 2514 rural infants/toddlers aged 6–30 months old. The results of the testing demonstrate that 48% of the sample’s infants/toddlers have cognitive delays; 52% have language delays; 53% have social-emotional delays; and 30% have motor delays. The data collection team also assessed caregiver mental health by using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) questionnaire. According to the findings, 39% of caregivers in the sample have symptoms of at least one kind of mental health problem (depression, anxiety, or stress). We also found that most caregivers do not engage in positive parenting practices, while a significant share of caregivers engage in negative parenting practices. The statistical analysis found that showing signs of mental health problems is significantly and negatively associated with infant/toddler developmental outcomes. The study also found that caregivers who show signs of mental health problems are significantly less likely to engage in interactive parenting practices. The study confirms that society needs to pay more attention to caregiver mental health problems in order to improve infant/toddler developmental outcomes in rural China and increase human capital accumulation in China as a whole. View Full-Text
Keywords: infants and toddlers; developmental outcomes; mental health; parenting practices; rural China infants and toddlers; developmental outcomes; mental health; parenting practices; rural China
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.; Dang, R.; Yang, N.; Bai, Y.; Wang, L.; Abbey, C.; Rozelle, S. Effect of Caregiver’s Mental Health on Early Childhood Development across Different Rural Communities in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2341.

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