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Article

Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults

1
Centre for Population Health Research on Electromagnetic Energy (PRESEE), School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
2
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
3
Monash University Endocrine Surgery Unit, Alfred Hospital, 55 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
4
Monash Emergency Service, Monash Health, Dandenong Hospital, 135 David Street, Melbourne, VIC 3175, Australia
5
Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research, Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure levels from a wide range of frequency bands. Measurements were recorded from 63 participants over an average of 27.4 (±4.5) hours. RF-EMF exposure levels were computed for each frequency band, as well as from downlink (RF from mobile phone base station), uplink (RF from mobile phone handsets), broadcast, and Wi-Fi. Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 36.9 ± 12.5 years; 66.7% were women; and almost all (98.2%) from urban areas. A Wi-Fi router at home was reported by 61 participants (96.8%), with 38 (61.2%) having a Wi-Fi enabled smart TV. Overall, 26 (41.3%) participants had noticed the existence of a mobile phone base station in their neighborhood. On average, participants estimated the distance between the base station and their usual residence to be about 500 m. The median personal RF-EMF exposure was 208 mV/m. Downlink contributed 40.4% of the total RF-EMF exposure, followed by broadcast (22.4%), uplink (17.3%), and Wi-Fi (15.9%). RF-EMF exposure levels on weekdays were higher than weekends (p < 0.05). Downlink and broadcast are the main contributors to total RF-EMF personal exposure. Personal RF-EMF exposure levels vary according to day of the week and time of day. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; personal exposure measurement; mobile phone base stations; downlink; uplink radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; personal exposure measurement; mobile phone base stations; downlink; uplink
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zeleke, B.M.; Brzozek, C.; Bhatt, C.R.; Abramson, M.J.; Croft, R.J.; Freudenstein, F.; Wiedemann, P.; Benke, G. Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234

AMA Style

Zeleke BM, Brzozek C, Bhatt CR, Abramson MJ, Croft RJ, Freudenstein F, Wiedemann P, Benke G. Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(10):2234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zeleke, Berihun M., Christopher Brzozek, Chhavi R. Bhatt, Michael J. Abramson, Rodney J. Croft, Frederik Freudenstein, Peter Wiedemann, and Geza Benke. 2018. "Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 10: 2234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234

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