Special Issue "Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Maria Rosaria Scarfì
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council, Naples, Italy
Interests: non-ionizing radiation; electromagnetic fields
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mats-Olof Mattsson
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Center for Energy, Environmental Resources & Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
Interests: health and environmental effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)
Prof. Dr. Myrtill Simkó
Website
Guest Editor
SciProof International AB, Vaktpoststigen 4, 83132 Östersund, Sweden
Interests: health and environmental effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF); health and environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Olga Zeni
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council (CNR), Naples, Italy
Interests: electromagnetic fields; high voltage electric pulses, mammalian cells, interaction mechanisms, biomedical applications of electromagnetic fields, biocompatibility of nanomaterials.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields are widely used in everyday life, as well as in specific occupational environments. In addition, these kinds of non-ionizing radiations are also successfully employed in biomedical applications, for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Present and foreseeable future technologies employ different parts of the spectrum, from static electric and magnetic fields, via low frequency fields to high frequency electromagnetic fields encompassing millimetre waves and THz fields.

A large body of literature dealing with biological and health effects of such fields is available, although a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of interactions remains to be elucidated. Therefore, there is great interest in evaluating the induced biological responses from the point of view of the associated interaction mechanisms.

This Special Issue is open to scientific studies addressing biophysical, in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological investigations on electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic exposure aimed at evaluating possible negative health effects, studies exploring the beneficial potential of such fields for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and studies focusing on the associated interaction mechanisms. It includes work in any frequency area, from static fields up to exposures in the THz region. Moreover, the article may cover exposure assessment, dosimetry, hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment, communication, and management.

Dr. Maria Rosaria Scarfì
Prof. Dr. Mats-Olof Mattsson
Prof. Dr. Myrtill Simkó
Dr. Olga Zeni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electromagnetic bio-effects
  • interaction mechanisms
  • environmental health
  • electromagnetic field modelling
  • exposure assessment
  • diagnostic and therapeutic applications
  • experimental studies

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: “Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224548 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
The last decades have seen a huge increase in applications and devices using and emitting non-ionizing radiation, otherwise referred to as “electromagnetic fields” (EMF) [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Treatment with 3-Aminobenzamide Negates the Radiofrequency-Induced Adaptive Response in Two Cell Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152768 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In previous investigations, we demonstrated that pre-exposure of different cell cultures to radiofrequency fields can reduce the damage induced by genotoxic agents, an effect resembling the so-called adaptive response. In this study, we pre-exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast [...] Read more.
In previous investigations, we demonstrated that pre-exposure of different cell cultures to radiofrequency fields can reduce the damage induced by genotoxic agents, an effect resembling the so-called adaptive response. In this study, we pre-exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line to 1950 MHz, UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) signal, for 20 h, and then treated cultures with Mitomycin-C. After confirming the induction of an adaptive response in terms of the reduction of micronuclei formation, we observed that such a response was negated by treatments with 3-aminobenzamide. Since 3-aminobenzamide is an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme, which is involved in DNA repair, these results support the possible involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in radiofrequency-induced adaptive response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure and the Resting EEG: Exploring the Thermal Mechanism Hypothesis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091505 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
There is now strong evidence that radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure influences the human electroencephalogram (EEG). While effects on the alpha band of the resting EEG have been repeatedly shown, the mechanisms underlying that effect have not been established. The current study used [...] Read more.
There is now strong evidence that radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure influences the human electroencephalogram (EEG). While effects on the alpha band of the resting EEG have been repeatedly shown, the mechanisms underlying that effect have not been established. The current study used well-controlled methods to assess the RF-EMF exposure effect on the EEG and determine whether that effect might be thermally mediated. Thirty-six healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced provocation study. A water-perfusion suit (34 °C) was worn throughout the study to negate environmental influences and stabilize skin temperature. Participants attended the laboratory on four occasions, the first being a calibration session and the three subsequent ones being exposure sessions. During each exposure session, EEG and skin temperature (8 sites) were recorded continuously during a baseline phase, and then during a 30 min exposure to a 920 MHz GSM-like signal (Sham, Low RF-EMF (1 W/kg) and High RF-EMF (2 W/kg)). Consistent with previous research, alpha EEG activity increased during the High exposure condition compared to the Sham condition. As a measure of thermoregulatory activation, finger temperature was found to be higher during both exposure conditions compared to the Sham condition, indicating for the first time that the effect on the EEG is accompanied by thermoregulatory changes and suggesting that the effect of RF-EMF on the EEG is consistent with a thermal mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of 220 MHz Pulsed Modulated Radiofrequency Field on the Sperm Quality in Rats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071286 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Under some occupational conditions, workers are inevitably exposed to high-intensity radiofrequency (RF) fields. In this study, we investigated the effects of one-month exposure to a 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF field at the power density of 50 W/m2 on the sperm quality [...] Read more.
Under some occupational conditions, workers are inevitably exposed to high-intensity radiofrequency (RF) fields. In this study, we investigated the effects of one-month exposure to a 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF field at the power density of 50 W/m2 on the sperm quality in male adult rats. The sperm quality was evaluated by measuring the number, abnormality and survival rate of sperm cells. The morphology of testis was examined by hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining. The levels of secreting factors by Sertoli cells (SCs) and Leydig cells (LCs) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of cleaved caspase 3 in the testis was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression levels of the apoptosis-related protein (caspase 3, BAX and BCL2) in the testis were assessed by Western blotting. Compared with the sham group, the sperm quality in the RF group decreased significantly. The levels of secreting factors of SCs and the morphology of the testis showed an obvious change after RF exposure. The level of the secreting factor of LCs decreased significantly after RF exposure. The levels of cleaved caspase 3, caspase 3, and the BAX/BCL2 ratio in the testis increased markedly after RF exposure. These data collectively suggested that under the present experimental conditions, 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF exposure could impair sperm quality in rats, and the disruption of the secreting function of LCs and increased apoptosis of testis cells induced by the RF field might be accounted for by this damaging effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Machine Learning in the Analysis of Indoor ELF MF Exposure in Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071230 - 06 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Characterization of children exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields is an important issue because of the possible correlation of leukemia onset with ELF exposure. Cluster analysis—a Machine Learning approach—was applied on personal exposure measurements from 977 children in France to characterize [...] Read more.
Characterization of children exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields is an important issue because of the possible correlation of leukemia onset with ELF exposure. Cluster analysis—a Machine Learning approach—was applied on personal exposure measurements from 977 children in France to characterize real-life ELF exposure scenarios. Electric networks near the child’s home or school were considered as environmental factors characterizing the exposure scenarios. The following clusters were identified: children with the highest exposure living 120–200 m from 225 kV/400 kV overhead lines; children with mid-to-high exposure living 70–100 m from 63 kV/150 kV overhead lines; children with mid-to-low exposure living 40 m from 400 V/20 kV substations and underground networks; children with the lowest exposure and the lowest number of electric networks in the vicinity. 63–225 kV underground networks within 20 m and 400 V/20 kV overhead lines within 40 m played a marginal role in differentiating exposure clusters. Cluster analysis is a viable approach to discovering variables best characterizing the exposure scenarios and thus it might be potentially useful to better tailor epidemiological studies. The present study did not assess the impact of indoor sources of exposure, which should be addressed in a further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health Care—Exposure and Safety Aspects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071186 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The main aim of the study was to identify and describe methods using non-ionizing radiation (NIR) such as electromagnetic fields (EMF) and optical radiation in Swedish health care. By examining anticipated exposure levels and by identifying possible health hazards we also aimed to [...] Read more.
The main aim of the study was to identify and describe methods using non-ionizing radiation (NIR) such as electromagnetic fields (EMF) and optical radiation in Swedish health care. By examining anticipated exposure levels and by identifying possible health hazards we also aimed to recognize knowledge gaps in the field. NIR is mainly used in health care for diagnosis and therapy. Three applications were identified where acute effects cannot be ruled out: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrosurgery. When using optical radiation, such as class 3 and 4 lasers for therapy or surgical procedures and ultra-violet light for therapy, acute effects such as unintentional burns, photo reactions, erythema and effects on the eyes need to be avoided. There is a need for more knowledge regarding long-term effects of MRI as well as on the combination of different NIR exposures. Based on literature and after consulting staff we conclude that the health care professionals’ knowledge about the risks and safety measures should be improved and that there is a need for clear, evidence-based information from reliable sources, and it should be obvious to the user which source to address. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Evaluation of Radiofrequency Exposure during Magnetic Resonant Imaging: Application of Whole-Body Individual Human Model and Body Motion in the Coil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061069 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The accurate estimation of patient’s exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) significantly depends on a precise individual anatomical model. In the study, we investigated the applicability of an efficient whole-body individual modelling method for the assessment of [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of patient’s exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) significantly depends on a precise individual anatomical model. In the study, we investigated the applicability of an efficient whole-body individual modelling method for the assessment of MRI RF exposure. The individual modelling method included a deformable human model and tissue simplification techniques. Besides its remarkable efficiency, this approach utilized only a low specific absorption rate (SAR) sequence or even no MRI scan to generate the whole-body individual model. Therefore, it substantially reduced the risk of RF exposure. The dosimetric difference of the individual modelling method was evaluated using the manually segmented human models. In addition, stochastic dosimetry using a surrogate model by polynomial chaos presented SAR variability due to body misalignment and tilt in the coil, which were frequently occurred in the practical scan. In conclusion, the dosimetric equivalence of the individual models was validated by both deterministic and stochastic dosimetry. The proposed individual modelling method allowed the physicians to quantify the patient-specific SAR while the statistical results enabled them to comprehensively weigh over the exposure risk and get the benefit of imaging enhancement by using the high-intensity scanners or the high-SAR sequences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Analysis of Embryo Development and Behavioral Response of Medaka Fish under Static Magnetic Field Exposures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050844 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The static magnetic field (SMF) in human exposure has become a health risk concern, especially with respect to prolonged exposure. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has been considering cell or animal models to be adopted to estimate the possible human [...] Read more.
The static magnetic field (SMF) in human exposure has become a health risk concern, especially with respect to prolonged exposure. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has been considering cell or animal models to be adopted to estimate the possible human health impacts after such exposure. The medaka fish is a good animal model for human-related health assessment studies; this paper examines both the embryo development and behavioral responses in medaka fish in vivo to long-term SMF exposure at the mT level. SMF exposure was examined for the complete developmental period of embryos until hatched; the embryos were monitored and recorded every 24 h for different morphological abnormalities in their developmental stages. The behavioral response of adult fish was also examined by analyzing their swimming velocities and positioning as compared with that of the control group. It was observed that there were no impacts on embryo development under prolonged exposure up to about 100 mT while the swimming behavior of the adult fish under exposure was different to the control group—the swimming movement of the treated group was more static, with an average velocity of 24.6% less as observed over a 24-h duration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Thermal Response for RF Exposure in Human and Rat Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102320 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the international guidelines/standards for human protection against electromagnetic fields, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used as a metric for radio-frequency field exposure. For radio-frequency near-field exposure, the peak value of the SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue is treated as [...] Read more.
In the international guidelines/standards for human protection against electromagnetic fields, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used as a metric for radio-frequency field exposure. For radio-frequency near-field exposure, the peak value of the SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue is treated as a surrogate of the local temperature elevation for frequencies up to 3–10 GHz. The limit of 10-g SAR is derived by extrapolating the thermal damage in animal experiments. However, no reports discussed the difference between the time constant of temperature elevation in small animals and humans for local exposure. This study computationally estimated the thermal time constants of temperature elevation in human head and rat models exposed to dipole antennas at 3–10 GHz. The peak temperature elevation in the human brain was lower than that in the rat model, mainly because of difference in depth from the scalp. Consequently, the thermal time constant of the rat brain was smaller than that of the human brain. Additionally, the thermal time constant in human skin decreased with increasing frequency, which was mainly characterized by the effective SAR volume, whereas it was almost frequency-independent in the human brain. These findings should be helpful for extrapolating animal studies to humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure [...] Read more.
The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure levels from a wide range of frequency bands. Measurements were recorded from 63 participants over an average of 27.4 (±4.5) hours. RF-EMF exposure levels were computed for each frequency band, as well as from downlink (RF from mobile phone base station), uplink (RF from mobile phone handsets), broadcast, and Wi-Fi. Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 36.9 ± 12.5 years; 66.7% were women; and almost all (98.2%) from urban areas. A Wi-Fi router at home was reported by 61 participants (96.8%), with 38 (61.2%) having a Wi-Fi enabled smart TV. Overall, 26 (41.3%) participants had noticed the existence of a mobile phone base station in their neighborhood. On average, participants estimated the distance between the base station and their usual residence to be about 500 m. The median personal RF-EMF exposure was 208 mV/m. Downlink contributed 40.4% of the total RF-EMF exposure, followed by broadcast (22.4%), uplink (17.3%), and Wi-Fi (15.9%). RF-EMF exposure levels on weekdays were higher than weekends (p < 0.05). Downlink and broadcast are the main contributors to total RF-EMF personal exposure. Personal RF-EMF exposure levels vary according to day of the week and time of day. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Children’s Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields by Stochastic Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091963 - 08 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this study, children’s exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF, 40–800 Hz) is investigated. The interest in this thematic has grown due to a possible correlation between the increased risk of childhood leukemia and a daily average exposure above 0.4 µT, [...] Read more.
In this study, children’s exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF, 40–800 Hz) is investigated. The interest in this thematic has grown due to a possible correlation between the increased risk of childhood leukemia and a daily average exposure above 0.4 µT, although the causal relationship is still uncertain. The aim of this paper was to present a new method of characterizing the children’s exposure to ELF-MF starting from personal measurements using a stochastic approach based on segmentation (and to apply it to the personal measurements themselves) of two previous projects: the ARIMMORA project and the EXPERS project. The stochastic model consisted in (i) splitting the 24 h recordings into stationary events and (ii) characterizing each event with four parameters that are easily interpretable: the duration of the event, the mean value, the dispersion of the magnetic field over the event, and a final parameter characterizing the variation speed. Afterward, the data from the two databases were divided in subgroups based on a characteristic (i.e., children’s age, number of inhabitants in the area, etc.). For every subgroup, the kernel density estimation (KDE) of each parameter was calculated and the p-value histogram of the parameters together was obtained, in order to compare the subgroups and to extract information about the children’s exposure. In conclusion, this new stochastic approach allows for the identification of the parameters that most affect the level of children’s exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a Single 30-Min Long Term Evolution Mobile Phone-Like Exposure on Thermal Pain Threshold of Young Healthy Volunteers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091849 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such [...] Read more.
Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such concerns. Here we investigated the effects of acute exposure from Long Term Evolution (LTE) MP EMFs on thermal pain threshold in healthy young adults. We use a protocol that was validated in a previous study in a capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia model and was also successfully used to show that exposure from an RF source mimicking a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) MP led to mildly stronger desensitization to repeated noxious thermal stimulation relative to the sham condition. Using the same experimental design, we did not find any effects of LTE exposure on thermal pain threshold. The present results, contrary to previous evidence obtained with the UMTS modulation, are likely to originate from placebo/nocebo effects and are unrelated to the brief acute LTE EMF exposure itself. The fact that this is dissimilar to our previous results on UMTS exposure implies that RF modulations might differentially affect pain perception and points to the necessity of further research on the topic. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Contribution of In Vivo Mammalian Studies to the Knowledge of Adverse Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on Human Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183379 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The proliferation of cellular antennas and other radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generating devices of the last decades has led to more and more concerns about the potential health effects from RFR exposure. Since the 2011 classification as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency [...] Read more.
The proliferation of cellular antennas and other radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generating devices of the last decades has led to more and more concerns about the potential health effects from RFR exposure. Since the 2011 classification as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), more experimental studies have been published that support a causal association between RFR exposure and health hazards. As regard cancer risk, two long-term experimental studies have been recently published by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Italian Ramazzini Institute (RI). Despite important experimental differences, both studies found statistically significant increases in the development of the same type of very rare glial malignant tumors. In addition to carcinogenicity, reproductive organs might be particularly exposed, as well as sensitive to RFR. In this work, we reviewed the currently available evidence from in vivo studies on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in order to summarize the contribution of experimental research to the prevention of the adverse effects of RFR on human health. Full article
Open AccessReview
Can Low-Level Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields Effect Cognitive Behaviour in Laboratory Animals? A Systematic Review of the Literature Related to Spatial Learning and Place Memory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091607 - 08 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This review considers whether exposure to low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields, mostly associated with mobile phone technology, can influence cognitive behaviour of laboratory animals. Studies were nominated for inclusion using an a priori defined protocol with preselected criteria, and studies were excluded from analysis [...] Read more.
This review considers whether exposure to low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields, mostly associated with mobile phone technology, can influence cognitive behaviour of laboratory animals. Studies were nominated for inclusion using an a priori defined protocol with preselected criteria, and studies were excluded from analysis if they did not include sufficient details about the exposure, dosimetry or experimental protocol, or if they lacked a sham-exposed group. Overall, 62 studies were identified that have investigated the effects of RF fields on spatial memory and place learning and have been published since 1993. Of these, 17 studies were excluded, 20 studies reported no significant field-related effects, 21 studies reported significant impairments or deficits, and four studies reported beneficial consequences. The data do not suggest whether these outcomes are related to specific differences in exposure or testing conditions, or simply represent chance. However, some studies have suggested possible molecular mechanisms for the observed effects, but none of these has been substantiated through independent replication. Further behavioural studies could prove useful to resolve this situation, and it is suggested that these studies should use a consistent animal model with standardized exposure and testing protocols, and with detailed dosimetry provided by heterogeneous, anatomically-realistic animal models. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Assessment in Indoor Environments: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060955 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in indoor environments depends on both outdoor sources such as radio, television and mobile phone antennas and indoor sources, such as mobile phones and wireless communications applications. Establishing the levels of exposure could be challenging due [...] Read more.
Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in indoor environments depends on both outdoor sources such as radio, television and mobile phone antennas and indoor sources, such as mobile phones and wireless communications applications. Establishing the levels of exposure could be challenging due to differences in the approaches used in different studies. The goal of this study is to present an overview of the last ten years research efforts about RF EMF exposure in indoor environments, considering different RF-EMF sources found to cause exposure in indoor environments, different indoor environments and different approaches used to assess the exposure. The highest maximum mean levels of the exposure considering the whole RF-EMF frequency band was found in offices (1.14 V/m) and in public transports (0.97 V/m), while the lowest levels of exposure were observed in homes and apartments, with mean values in the range 0.13–0.43 V/m. The contribution of different RF-EMF sources to the total level of exposure was found to show slightly different patterns among the indoor environments, but this finding has to be considered as a time-dependent picture of the continuous evolving exposure to RF-EMF. Full article
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