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Special Issue "Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Rosaria Scarfì

Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: non-ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mats-Olof Mattsson

Center for Energy, Environmental Resources & Technologies, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health and environmental effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)
Guest Editor
Prof. Myrtill Simkó

SciProof International AB, Vaktpoststigen 4, 83132 Östersund, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health and environmental effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF); health and environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials
Guest Editor
Dr. Olga Zeni

Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: non-ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields are widely used in everyday life, as well as in specific occupational environments. In addition, these kinds of non-ionizing radiations are also successfully employed in biomedical applications, for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Present and foreseeable future technologies employ different parts of the spectrum, from static electric and magnetic fields, via low frequency fields to high frequency electromagnetic fields encompassing millimetre waves and THz fields.

A large body of literature dealing with biological and health effects of such fields is available, although a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of interactions remains to be elucidated. Therefore, there is great interest in evaluating the induced biological responses from the point of view of the associated interaction mechanisms.

This Special Issue is open to scientific studies addressing biophysical, in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological investigations on electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic exposure aimed at evaluating possible negative health effects, studies exploring the beneficial potential of such fields for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, and studies focusing on the associated interaction mechanisms. It includes work in any frequency area, from static fields up to exposures in the THz region. Moreover, the article may cover exposure assessment, dosimetry, hazard identification and characterization, risk assessment, communication, and management.

Dr. Maria Rosaria Scarfì
Prof. Dr. Mats-Olof Mattsson
Prof. Dr. Myrtill Simkó
Dr. Olga Zeni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electromagnetic bio-effects
  • interaction mechanisms
  • environmental health
  • electromagnetic field modelling
  • exposure assessment
  • diagnostic and therapeutic applications
  • experimental studies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Thermal Response for RF Exposure in Human and Rat Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102320
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 19 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
In the international guidelines/standards for human protection against electromagnetic fields, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used as a metric for radio-frequency field exposure. For radio-frequency near-field exposure, the peak value of the SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue is treated as
[...] Read more.
In the international guidelines/standards for human protection against electromagnetic fields, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used as a metric for radio-frequency field exposure. For radio-frequency near-field exposure, the peak value of the SAR averaged over 10 g of tissue is treated as a surrogate of the local temperature elevation for frequencies up to 3–10 GHz. The limit of 10-g SAR is derived by extrapolating the thermal damage in animal experiments. However, no reports discussed the difference between the time constant of temperature elevation in small animals and humans for local exposure. This study computationally estimated the thermal time constants of temperature elevation in human head and rat models exposed to dipole antennas at 3–10 GHz. The peak temperature elevation in the human brain was lower than that in the rat model, mainly because of difference in depth from the scalp. Consequently, the thermal time constant of the rat brain was smaller than that of the human brain. Additionally, the thermal time constant in human skin decreased with increasing frequency, which was mainly characterized by the effective SAR volume, whereas it was almost frequency-independent in the human brain. These findings should be helpful for extrapolating animal studies to humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure
[...] Read more.
The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure levels from a wide range of frequency bands. Measurements were recorded from 63 participants over an average of 27.4 (±4.5) hours. RF-EMF exposure levels were computed for each frequency band, as well as from downlink (RF from mobile phone base station), uplink (RF from mobile phone handsets), broadcast, and Wi-Fi. Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 36.9 ± 12.5 years; 66.7% were women; and almost all (98.2%) from urban areas. A Wi-Fi router at home was reported by 61 participants (96.8%), with 38 (61.2%) having a Wi-Fi enabled smart TV. Overall, 26 (41.3%) participants had noticed the existence of a mobile phone base station in their neighborhood. On average, participants estimated the distance between the base station and their usual residence to be about 500 m. The median personal RF-EMF exposure was 208 mV/m. Downlink contributed 40.4% of the total RF-EMF exposure, followed by broadcast (22.4%), uplink (17.3%), and Wi-Fi (15.9%). RF-EMF exposure levels on weekdays were higher than weekends (p < 0.05). Downlink and broadcast are the main contributors to total RF-EMF personal exposure. Personal RF-EMF exposure levels vary according to day of the week and time of day. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Children’s Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields by Stochastic Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091963
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
In this study, children’s exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF, 40–800 Hz) is investigated. The interest in this thematic has grown due to a possible correlation between the increased risk of childhood leukemia and a daily average exposure above 0.4 µT,
[...] Read more.
In this study, children’s exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF, 40–800 Hz) is investigated. The interest in this thematic has grown due to a possible correlation between the increased risk of childhood leukemia and a daily average exposure above 0.4 µT, although the causal relationship is still uncertain. The aim of this paper was to present a new method of characterizing the children’s exposure to ELF-MF starting from personal measurements using a stochastic approach based on segmentation (and to apply it to the personal measurements themselves) of two previous projects: the ARIMMORA project and the EXPERS project. The stochastic model consisted in (i) splitting the 24 h recordings into stationary events and (ii) characterizing each event with four parameters that are easily interpretable: the duration of the event, the mean value, the dispersion of the magnetic field over the event, and a final parameter characterizing the variation speed. Afterward, the data from the two databases were divided in subgroups based on a characteristic (i.e., children’s age, number of inhabitants in the area, etc.). For every subgroup, the kernel density estimation (KDE) of each parameter was calculated and the p-value histogram of the parameters together was obtained, in order to compare the subgroups and to extract information about the children’s exposure. In conclusion, this new stochastic approach allows for the identification of the parameters that most affect the level of children’s exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of a Single 30-Min Long Term Evolution Mobile Phone-Like Exposure on Thermal Pain Threshold of Young Healthy Volunteers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091849
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such
[...] Read more.
Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such concerns. Here we investigated the effects of acute exposure from Long Term Evolution (LTE) MP EMFs on thermal pain threshold in healthy young adults. We use a protocol that was validated in a previous study in a capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia model and was also successfully used to show that exposure from an RF source mimicking a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) MP led to mildly stronger desensitization to repeated noxious thermal stimulation relative to the sham condition. Using the same experimental design, we did not find any effects of LTE exposure on thermal pain threshold. The present results, contrary to previous evidence obtained with the UMTS modulation, are likely to originate from placebo/nocebo effects and are unrelated to the brief acute LTE EMF exposure itself. The fact that this is dissimilar to our previous results on UMTS exposure implies that RF modulations might differentially affect pain perception and points to the necessity of further research on the topic. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of paper: Research article

Title: The effects of long-term exposure to 0.3 THz electromagnetic fields on MN formation, morphological changes or Hsp expression in HCE-T cells

Authors: Shin Koyama, Junji Miyakoshi et al.

Abstract: Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) derived from human eye were exposed to 0.3 terahertz (THz) electromagnetic fields for 24 hours. The micronucleus (MN) frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 hour provided a positive control. There was no statistically significant increase in the MN frequency of cells exposed to 0.3 THz electromagnetic fields at 0.8 mW/cm2 compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls. There were also no significant morphological changes in cells exposed to 0.3 THz electromagnetic fields compared to sham-exposed controls and incubator controls, and Hsp expression (Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90α) was also not significantly different between the three treatments. These results indicate that exposure to 0.3 THz electromagnetic fields has no effect on genotoxicity, morphological changes or hsp expression to the HCE-T cells.

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