Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-95
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessEditorial The Daunting Challenge of Ensuring Sustainable Development of Nanomaterials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020245
Received: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1753 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development and implementation of nanomaterials (NMs) is rapid and a vast range of applications is already in place or foreseen.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate and Effect of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020244
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1548 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the [...] Read more.
Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15–45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011–2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Impact of Dust from Ore Processing Facilities on Rain Water Collection Tanks in a Tropical Environment—The Obvious Source “Ain’t Necessarily So”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020243
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1542 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic [...] Read more.
Concerns have been expressed that dust from the minerals processing facilities at Karumba Queensland Australia have resulted in elevated lead (Pb) concentrations in rain water tanks. The ores derived from the Century mine some 304 km from the port. High precision Pb isotopic measurements on environmental samples have been undertaken to evaluate the source of Pb in rainwaters and acid digests from roof wipes and gutter wipes. There does not appear to be any relationship between sample location and the processing facility but samples from the area subject to the prevailing winds show the highest contribution of Century Pb. All gutter wipes (82 to 1270 µg Pb/wipe) have contributions of Century ore ranging from 87% to 96%. The contribution of Century ore to five roof wipes (22 to 88 µg Pb/wipe) ranges from 89% to 97% and in the other two samples there is a mix of Century and Broken Hill Pb. Three of the seven rainwater have contributions of Century ore Pb ranging from 33% to 75%. Two of the other four rainwater samples have the highest water Pb concentrations of 88 and 100 µg/L and their isotopic data show Broken Hill Pb contributions ranging from 77% to 80%. The source of the Broken Hill Pb is probably from the galvanized roofing material and/or brass fittings in the rainwater tanks. The discrimination between various sources is only detectable using high precision 204Pb-based isotopic ratios and not the now common inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS ) data presentations of the higher abundance isotopes 208Pb, 207Pb and 206Pb. Isotopic results for the waters demonstrate that apportioning blame where there is an obvious point source may not always be the correct conclusion. Nevertheless the isotopic data for the gutter wipes indicates that there was widespread contamination from the processing facilities throughout the town. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lead: Risk Assessment and Health Effects)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020242
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority [...] Read more.
While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020241
Received: 13 January 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2244 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times [...] Read more.
The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. Full article
Open AccessOpinion E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020240
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1836 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. [...] Read more.
Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020239
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2028 | PDF Full-text (1432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This [...] Read more.
Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Heart Failure and Adherence to Process Indicators: Which Socio-Demographic Determinants are Involved?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020238
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1952 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interest in chronic conditions reflects their role as the first cause of death and disability in developed countries; improving the management of these conditions is a priority for health care services. The aim of this study was to establish which sociodemographic factors influence [...] Read more.
Interest in chronic conditions reflects their role as the first cause of death and disability in developed countries; improving the management of these conditions is a priority for health care services. The aim of this study was to establish which sociodemographic factors influence adherence to standards of care for chronic heart failure (CHF). A generalized multilevel structural equation model was developed and applied to a sample of patients with CHF obtained from administrative data flows in six Italian regions to ascertain any associations between adherence to standards of care for CHF and sociodemographic variables. Indicators of compliance were adherence to beta-blocker therapy (BB-A) and Angiotensin Convertin Enzime inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker therapy (ACE-A), and creatinine and electrolyte testing (CNK-T). All indicators were computed over a one-year follow-up. Among a cohort of 24,997 patients, the BB-A rate was 40.4%, the ACE-A rate 61.1%, and the CNK-T rate 57.0%. Factors found associated with adherence were gender, age, and citizenship. Our study shows an inadequate adherence to standards of care for CHF, particularly associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics. This suggests the need to improve the role of primary care in managing this chronic condition. The measures considered only apply to patients with a reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, hence a limitation of this analysis is the lack of information on left ventricular ejection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity in Primary Care)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Leg Power As an Indicator of Risk of Injury or Illness in Police Recruits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020237
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1983 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tactical trainees, like those entering the police force, are required to undergo vigorous training as part of their occupational preparation. This training has the potential to cause injuries. In addition, the physical training, communal living and pressures of tactical training are known to [...] Read more.
Tactical trainees, like those entering the police force, are required to undergo vigorous training as part of their occupational preparation. This training has the potential to cause injuries. In addition, the physical training, communal living and pressures of tactical training are known to induce immune suppression and have the potential to increase the risk of illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between leg power, as measured by a vertical jump (VJ), and rates of reported injuries and illnesses during police recruit training. Retrospective data from recruits (n = 1021) undergoing basic police recruit training at an Australian Police Force College was collected. Recruits completed a VJ assessment at the commencement of their second state of training. Formally reported illness and injuries were collected 12 weeks later, following completion of training. Correlations between VJ height and rates of reported illness and injury were low (r = −0.16 and −0.09, respectively) but significant (p < 0.005), with VJ height accounting for 2.6% and 0.8% of the variance in illness and injury rates, respectively. In terms of relative risks, recruits with the lowest recorded VJ heights were more than three times as likely as those with highest VJ heights to suffer injury and/or illness. Police recruits with lower VJ height are at a significantly greater risk of suffering an injury or illness during police basic recruit training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment)
Open AccessArticle Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Injured in Road Traffic Crashes and Transported by Emergency Medical Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020236
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1651 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 [...] Read more.
To investigate the injury characteristics and mortality of patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitalized for trauma following a road traffic crash, data obtained from the Trauma Registry System were retrospectively reviewed for trauma admissions between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013 in a Level I trauma center. Of 16,548 registered patients, 3978 and 1440 patients injured in road traffic crashes were transported to the emergency department by EMS and non-EMS, respectively. Patients transported by EMS had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and worse hemodynamic measures. Compared to patients transported by non-EMS, more patients transported by EMS required procedures (intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion) at the emergency department. They also sustained a higher injury severity, as measured by the injury severity score (ISS) and the new injury severity score (NISS). Lastly, in-hospital mortality was higher among the EMS than the non-EMS group (1.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, we found no statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for mortality among patients transported by EMS after adjustment for ISS (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 0.33–2.26), indicating that the higher incidence of mortality was likely attributed to the patients’ higher injury severity. In addition, after propensity score matching, logistic regression of 58 well-matched pairs did not show a significant influence of transportation by EMS on mortality (OR: 0.578, 95% CI: 0.132–2.541 p = 0.468). Full article
Open AccessArticle Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C Ratio Cutoffs for Categorization of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020235
Received: 15 November 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1944 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease [...] Read more.
Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in general healthy Uygur adults in Xinjiang. A total of 4047 Uygur subjects aged ≥35 years were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in all participants. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The prevalence of high LDL-C and low HDL-C cholesterol was high and positively correlated with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in the Uygur population. In both men and women, we detected a slight apparent trend of high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Our study also demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for CVD risk factors was slightly stronger in men than in women. Analysis of the shortest distance in the ROC curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥two of these risk factors suggested a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cutoff of 2.5 for both men and women. The results of this study showed that a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cut-off of 2.5 might be used as the predictive marker to detect CVD risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lead: Risk Assessment and Health Effects)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Distributions, Early Diagenesis, and Spatial Characteristics of Amino Acids in Sediments of Multi-Polluted Rivers: A Case Study in the Haihe River Basin, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020234
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 10 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398 | PDF Full-text (3291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Haihe River Basin, which is one of the most water-scarce and polluted river basins in China, has abnormally high nitrogen levels. In this study, total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) were measured in surface sediment and sediment core samples in the Haihe River [...] Read more.
The Haihe River Basin, which is one of the most water-scarce and polluted river basins in China, has abnormally high nitrogen levels. In this study, total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) were measured in surface sediment and sediment core samples in the Haihe River Basin to determine if amino acids were potential sources of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. The rivers were found to be in a state of hypoxia and contain abnormally high levels of ammonium and organic nitrogen. Additionally, NH3-N was the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments, while organic nitrogen accounted for 92.53% of sedimentary nitrogen. THAAs-C accounted for 14.92% of the total organic carbon, while THAAs-N accounted for more than 49.59% of organic nitrogen and 45.68% of total nitrogen. The major fraction of THAAs were protein amino acids. Three sediment cores of the most heavily polluted rivers also showed high levels of THAAs. Evaluation of the degradation index (DI) of sedimentary organic matter in sediments evaluated based on the THAAs revealed that most positive DI values were found in the downstream portion of the Ziya River Watershed. Additionally, the DI of surface sediment was correlated with THAAs (r2 = 0.763, p < 0.001), as was the DI of sediment cores (r2 = 0.773, p < 0.001). Overall, amino acids in sediments were found to be an important potential source of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control between Bouyei and Han: Results from a Bi-Ethnic Health Survey in Developing Regions from South China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020233
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1706 | PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hypertension is highly prevalent in low-income population. This study aims to investigate ethnic disparities in hypertension and identify modifiable factors related to its occurrence and control in developing regions in South China. Blood pressure was measured in the Bouyei and Han populations during [...] Read more.
Hypertension is highly prevalent in low-income population. This study aims to investigate ethnic disparities in hypertension and identify modifiable factors related to its occurrence and control in developing regions in South China. Blood pressure was measured in the Bouyei and Han populations during a community-based health survey in Guizhou, 2012. A multistage stratified sampling method was adopted to recruit Bouyei and Han aged from 20 to 80 years. Taking mixed effects into consideration, multilevel logistic models with random intercept were used for data analysis. The prevalence rates of hypertension were 35.3% for the Bouyei and 33.7% for the Han. Among the hypertensive participants, 30.1% of the Bouyei and 40.2% of the Han were aware of their hypertensive conditions, 19.7% of the Bouyei and 31.1% of the Han were receiving treatment, and only 3.6% of the Bouyei and 9.9% of the Han had their blood pressure under control. Age-sex standardized rates of awareness, treatment, and control were consistently lower in the Bouyei than the Han. Such ethnic disparities were more evident in the elderly population. Avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption and better education were favorable lifestyle for reduction in risk of hypertension. Moderate physical activity improved control of hypertension in Bouyei patients under treatment. Conclusively, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were substantially lower in Bouyei than Han, particularly in the elderly population. Such ethnic disparities indicate that elderly Bouyei population should be targeted for tailored interventions in the future. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Determination of Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Ziya River Watershed, China: Based on Laboratory Core Incubation and Microelectrode Measurements
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020232
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 6 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1501 | PDF Full-text (2345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurement was performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the [...] Read more.
A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurement was performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19–1.41 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m2·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15–1.38 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m2·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R2 = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05), the microelectrode method was shown to produce results that were similar to those from the core incubation method. The microelectrode method, therefore, could be used as an alternative method for traditional core incubation method, or as a method to verify SOD rates measured by other methods. We consider that high potential sediment oxygen demand would occur in the Ziya River Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020231
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1641 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and [...] Read more.
Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Radiation: From Physics to Impacts)
Open AccessArticle The Emergence and Challenging Growth of the Bio-Ethanol Innovation System in Taiwan (1949–2015)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020230
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in [...] Read more.
This study explores the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan from the perspective of a technology innovation system (TIS). Taiwan is a newly industrialized country and is not currently a main producer of bio-ethanol. This study analyzes the evolution of bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan and places a particular emphasis on challenges that present policies face in the context of potential long-term bio-ethanol development. Through an evaluation of the consistency of the present research, technology, development and innovation (RTDI) policies as well as the influence of these policies on the functional dynamics of bio-ethanol innovation system, mechanisms prohibiting the system from flourishing are determined. It is suggested that the production of bio-ethanol in Taiwan would be achieved if the government: (1) fixes long-term targets for both domestic bio-ethanol development and emission reduction; and (2) comprehensively designs a set of interrelated RTDI policies in accordance with the functional pattern of the bio-ethanol innovation system and consistently implements these policies. If such measures were implemented, it is considered that the bio-ethanol innovation system in Taiwan would flourish. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020227
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1495 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced [...] Read more.
Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM), a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL), the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Exposure to Agrochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020229
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1809 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down [...] Read more.
Introduction: In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down of their daily business. Worldwide, there is an overall very high loss of agricultural products due to weeds growth alone. To counteract this problem most farmers resort to the use of agrochemicals to increase their production but compromising the health of their farmworkers. The purpose of the study will be to assess the relationship between the agrochemical particles and cardiovascular diseases among farmworkers. Method: Non-systematic review was used to collect data. The following database were use: Medline, EBSCO, and Science Direct to search for the existing journal articles. Results: This study addresses the relationship between agrochemicals particles and cardiovascular diseases in the farming industries using literature review. Discussion: Other researchers had already done an extensive research on the pathway of potential mechanisms linking the ultrafine particulate matter to cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of those investigations were the clinical results of events that might lead to the development of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, arrhythmia and sudden death. Xenobiotic compounds that maybe implicated in the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases, will be examined and included in this study. There is compelling evidence suggesting that toxic free radicals of pesticides play an important role in human health. Conclusion: There is a close relationship between agrochemicals particle and cardiovascular diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020228
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4928 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. [...] Read more.
Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Correctional Health)
Open AccessArticle Anthropometric Indices in Adults: Which Is the Best Indicator to Identify Alanine Aminotransferase Levels?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020226
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1380 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: To evaluate the correlations between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a new body index, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) [...] Read more.
Background: To evaluate the correlations between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a new body index, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in Chinese adults. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China in 2012–2013, and 11,331 adults were included in our final analysis. Results: BMI, WC, HC, WHtR, WHR and ABSI were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels. Spearman rank test showed that WHtR (r = 0.346 for men, r = 0.282 for women, both p < 0.001) had the highest correlation coefficient for ALT level, whereas ABSI showed the lowest, and the correlation coefficient of each measure was higher in men than that in women. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of each anthropometric measure, the multivariate logistic model presented that WHtR had the superiority of identifying the presence of elevated ALT (OR 4.38; 95% CI 3.15–6.08 for men, OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.91–6.33 for women, both p < 0.001), and the ABSI was the poorest predictor in men (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.93–3.27, p < 0.001). No association was observed for ABSI in women. Conclusions: Our results indicated that BMI, WC, HC, WHtR and WHR were able to determine elevated ALT presence, while ABSI was not capable. WHtR and to some extent BMI were the best body indices, for predicting the ALT levels in this population. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of ABSI as a novel body index was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020225
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1655 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the [...] Read more.
Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020224
Received: 3 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2317 | PDF Full-text (918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to [...] Read more.
Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Public Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes in the General Chinese Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020223
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1488 | PDF Full-text (910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Chinese population. Methods: This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study which was conducted in rural [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general Chinese population. Methods: This study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study which was conducted in rural areas of China from the 2012 to 2013 Northeast China Rural Cardiovascular Health Study (NCRCHS), and 11,573 adults with complete data were included in our final analysis. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Serum ALT and AST levels within the reference range were divided into quartiles, and their associations with MetS were evaluated by logistic regressions. Results: A total of 7.4% and 3.5% participants had elevated serum ALT and AST levels, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 37.3% in males and 45.8% in females. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found ALT level elevation, even within the reference range, was independently associated with MetS. The odds ratio (OR) values of MetS in the ALT quartiles 2–4 groups within the reference range were 1.113 (95% CI: 1.019–1.280), 1.375 (95% CI: 1.212–1.560), 1.878 (95% CI: 1.650–2.138) compared with the ALT quartile 1 group, and OR in the elevated ALT group was 3.020 (95% CI: 2.496–3.653). Positive relationship for MetS was also observed in elevated AST group (OR: 1.689, 95% CI: 1.314–2.171), but within the reference range, the AST level was not associated with MetS. Conclusions: Serum ALT level, even within the reference range, was significantly associated with MetS. However, only elevated AST levels above 40 U/L was positively associated with MetS. Within the reference range, we did not find a relationship between AST levels and MetS. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Casualty Risk of Multiple Meteorological Hazards in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020222
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 9 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1688 | PDF Full-text (2384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study of the frequency, intensity, and risk of extreme climatic events or natural hazards is important for assessing the impacts of climate change. Many models have been developed to assess the risk of multiple hazards, however, most of the existing approaches can [...] Read more.
A study of the frequency, intensity, and risk of extreme climatic events or natural hazards is important for assessing the impacts of climate change. Many models have been developed to assess the risk of multiple hazards, however, most of the existing approaches can only model the relative levels of risk. This paper reports the development of a method for the quantitative assessment of the risk of multiple hazards based on information diffusion. This method was used to assess the risks of loss of human lives from 11 types of meteorological hazards in China at the prefectural and provincial levels. Risk curves of multiple hazards were obtained for each province and the risks of 10-year, 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year return periods were mapped. The results show that the provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) in southeastern China are at higher risk of multiple meteorological hazards as a result of their geographical location and topography. The results of this study can be used as references for the management of meteorological disasters in China. The model can be used to quantitatively calculate the risks of casualty, direct economic losses, building collapse, and agricultural losses for any hazards at different spatial scales. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020221
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1794 | PDF Full-text (1717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were [...] Read more.
The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban soils. In ~75% of the urban soils the source of the Pb pollution was a mixture of glazed potsherd, sherds of glazed roof tiles, building remnants (Pb sheets), metal slag, Pb-based paint flakes and coal ashes. These anthropogenic Pb sources most likely entered the urban soils due to historical smelting activities, renovation and demolition of houses, disposal of coal ashes and raising and fertilization of land with city waste. Since many houses still contain Pb-based building materials, careless renovation or demolition can cause new or more extensive Pb pollution in urban soils. In ~25% of the studied urban topsoils, Pb isotope compositions suggest Pb pollution was caused by incinerator ash and/or gasoline Pb suggesting atmospheric deposition as the major source. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 14 selected urban soils was determined with an in vitro test and varied from 16% to 82% of total Pb. The bioaccessibility appears related to the chemical composition and grain size of the primary Pb phases and pollution age. Risk assessment based on the in vitro test results imply that risk to children may be underestimated in ~90% of the studied sample sites (13 out of 14). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lead: Risk Assessment and Health Effects)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020219
Received: 24 December 2015 / Revised: 6 February 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2668 | PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The [...] Read more.
This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Polymorphisms and Haplotype in the ABCA1 Gene and Overweight/Obesity Patients in the Uyghur Population of China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020220
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1622 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to detect the association between polymorphisms and haplotype in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene and overweight/obese Uyghur patients in China. Methods: A total of 259 overweight/obese patients and 276 normal weight subjects, which were randomly [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to detect the association between polymorphisms and haplotype in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene and overweight/obese Uyghur patients in China. Methods: A total of 259 overweight/obese patients and 276 normal weight subjects, which were randomly selected from among 3049 adult Uyghurs, were matched for age. We genotyped ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms of rs2515602, rs3890182, rs2275542, rs2230806, rs1800976, and rs4149313. Results: (1) The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2515602 and rs4149313 differed between the control group and case group. The genotypic frequency of rs2275542 also differed between the control group and case group (p < 0.05); (2) rs2515602, rs2230806, and rs4149313 polymorphisms were significantly related to risk of overweight/obese; (3) a significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the ABCA1 gene rs2275542 with rs3890182 and rs2515602 with rs4149313. (4) the C-C-C-A-G-G, T-C-G-A-G-G, and T-T-G-G-G-A haplotypes were significant in normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (p < 0.05); (5) the levels of HDL-C (rs2515602, rs2275542, rs4149313) in normal weight subjects were different among the genotypes (p < 0.05); the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG (rs1800976) in overweight/obese subjects were different among the genotypes (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The rs2515602, rs4149313, and rs2275542 polymorphisms were associated with overweight/obese conditions among Uyghurs. Strong LD was noted between rs2275542 with rs3890182 and rs2515602 with rs4149313. The C-C-C-A-G-G and T-C-G-A-G-G haplotypes may serve as risk factors of overweight/obesity among Uyghurs. The T-T-G-G-G-A haplotype may serve as a protective factor of overweight/obesity among Uyghurs. Rs2515602, rs2275542, rs4149313, and rs1800976 polymorphisms in the ABCA1 gene may influence lipid profiles. Full article
Open AccessArticle What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020218
Received: 7 November 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1915 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing [...] Read more.
Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migrant Health)
Open AccessArticle Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020217
Received: 3 January 2016 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2503 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessCommunication Pathogens in Ornamental Waters: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020216
Received: 19 November 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1547 | PDF Full-text (1036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The [...] Read more.
In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The results show a dynamic microbiota integrating human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter spp., and also antibiotic resistant bacteria. K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. were present as planktonic and biofilm organized bacteria. In vitro K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. showed an enhanced ability to assemble biofilm at 25 °C than at 37 °C. Bacteria recovered from biofilm samples showed an increased antibiotic resistance compared to the respective planktonic counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
Figures

Figure 1

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top