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Open AccessArticle

Diagnosed but Not Undiagnosed Diabetes Is Associated with Depression in Rural Areas

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Department of Cardiology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
2
Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
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Department of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Congdon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111136
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Background: There is a lack of study on the relation between undiagnosed diabetes and depression in the general population. Methods: A total of 11,531 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35 years old. Subjects were classified into three groups: no diabetes (ND), diagnosed diabetes (DD), and undiagnosed diabetes (UD). The participants were surveyed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: Of all the 11,531 participants, the prevalence of depression was higher in the DD group than in the other two groups. Multi variable logistic regression analyses show that the DD group had significantly higher odds for depression compared with the ND group (p < 0.01), while the UD group showed no significant differences compared to the ND group. Subgroup analyses show that diagnosed diabetes in subjects with a lower educational level, compared with subjects with an educational level of high school or above, had higher odds for a PHQ-9 score ≥5 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: In this general population, diagnosed but not undiagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with depression. Much higher odds for depression were found among diagnosed diabetic individuals with a lower level of education. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; diagnosed diabetes; population depression; diagnosed diabetes; population
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Guo, X.; Jiang, H.; Sun, G.; Sun, Y.; Abraham, M.R. Diagnosed but Not Undiagnosed Diabetes Is Associated with Depression in Rural Areas. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1136.

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