Next Article in Journal
Antimicrobial Activity of a Neem Cake Extract in a Broth Model Meat System
Next Article in Special Issue
Insights from Parents about Caring for a Child with Birth Defects
Previous Article in Journal
A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel
Previous Article in Special Issue
Food Fortification and Decline in the Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects: Does Public Intervention Reduce the Socioeconomic Gap in Prevalence?
Open AccessArticle

Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, 1010 Commonwealth Ave. Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3263-3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10083263
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 24 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Birth Defect Prevention)
This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB) in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day), alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day) and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day) were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day). View Full-Text
Keywords: spina bifida; alcohol consumption; caffeine consumption; cigarettes; folic acid; birth defects spina bifida; alcohol consumption; caffeine consumption; cigarettes; folic acid; birth defects
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Benedum, C.M.; Yazdy, M.M.; Mitchell, A.A.; Werler, M.M. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3263-3281.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop