Next Article in Journal
Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Carijoside A, a Bioactive Sterol Glycoside from an Octocoral Carijoa sp. (Clavulariidae)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2021-2037;

Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

Marine and Environmental Research Center–CIIMAR/CIMAR, Porto University, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Sciences, Porto University, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2010 / Revised: 14 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 30 June 2010
Full-Text   |   PDF [201 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine toxins; palytoxin; ostreocin; mascarenotoxin; ovatoxin; Palythoa; Ostreopsis marine toxins; palytoxin; ostreocin; mascarenotoxin; ovatoxin; Palythoa; Ostreopsis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramos, V.; Vasconcelos, V. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2021-2037.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top