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Open AccessReview

Oxidative Stress and Marine Carotenoids: Application by Using Nanoformulations

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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Sıhhiye, 06100 Ankara, Turkey
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar University, 34752 Istanbul, Turkey
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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
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Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Etiler, 06330 Ankara, Turkey
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Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, Santiago 8330507, Chile
7
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(8), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18080423
Received: 27 June 2020 / Revised: 5 August 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 13 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids in Inflammation and Cancer)
Carotenoids are natural fat-soluble pigments synthesized by plants, algae, fungi and microorganisms. They are responsible for the coloration of different photosynthetic organisms. Although they play a role in photosynthesis, they are also present in non-photosynthetic plant tissues, fungi, and bacteria. These metabolites have mainly been used in food, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to their utilization as pigmentation, they have significant therapeutically applications, such as improving immune system and preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Primarily, they have attracted attention due to their antioxidant activity. Several statistical investigations indicated an association between the use of carotenoids in diets and a decreased incidence of cancer types, suggesting the antioxidant properties of these compounds as an important factor in the scope of the studies against oxidative stress. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. Numerous of bioactive compounds such as marine carotenoids have low stability, are poorly absorbed, and own very limited bioavailability. The new technique is nanoencapsulation, which can be used to preserve marine carotenoids and their original properties during processing, storage, improve their physiochemical properties and increase their health-promoting effects. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids, their potential applications and different types of advanced nanoformulations preventing and treating oxidative stress related disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioavailability; carotenoids; marine; nanoformulation; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species bioavailability; carotenoids; marine; nanoformulation; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Genç, Y.; Bardakci, H.; Yücel, Ç.; Karatoprak, G.Ş.; Küpeli Akkol, E.; Hakan Barak, T.; Sobarzo-Sánchez, E. Oxidative Stress and Marine Carotenoids: Application by Using Nanoformulations. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 423.

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